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Acritoscincus duperreyi (GRAY, 1839)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Eugongylinae (Eugongylini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Bold-striped Cool-skink, Three-lined Skink 
SynonymTiliqua duperreyi GRAY 1839: 292
Lygosoma duperreyii — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 715 (part.)
Eulepis duperreyi — FITZINGER 1843 (fide SMITH 1937: 223)
Leiolopisma duperreyi — GREER 1982
Leiolopisma trilineatum — GREER 1982
Leiolopisma trilineatum — COGGER 1983
Acritoscincus duperreyi — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1984
Acritoscincus duperreyi — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1985: 23
Acritoscincus buddeni WELLS & WELLINGTON 1985: 22
Bassiana duperreyi — HUTCHINSON et al. 1990
Pseudemoia duperreyi — FRANK & RAMUS 1995
Leiolopisma eulepis — FRANK & RAMUS 1995: 188 (nom. nud.)
Bassiana duperreyi — COGGER 2000: 561
Bassiana duperreyi — FLATT et al. 2001
Bassiana duperreyi — DUBEY & SHINE 2010
Acritoscincus duperreyi — WILSON & SWAN 2010: 144
Acritoscincus duperreyi — COGGER 2014: 412
Bassiana duperreyi — DISSANAYAKE et al. 2021
Bassiana duperreyi — DISSANAYAKE et al. 2022 
DistributionAustralia (New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria)

Type locality: Van Diemen's Land (= Tasmania); original description cites Kangaroo Is., S. A.  
Reproductionoviparous. Bassiana duperreyi has been studied because of its extraembryonic membrane development which seems to be significant for the evolution of placentation. There seems to be both temperature-dependent (TSD) and genetic sex determination (GSD) in this species (SHINE et al. 2002). Radder et al. (2009) show that sex in this species also depends on egg size. In fact, if (and only if) eggs are incubated at low temperatures, removing yolk from a newly laid egg turns the offspring into a male. Adding yolk from a larger (but not smaller) egg turns the recipient egg's offspring into a female. Remarkably, then, offspring sex in this species is the end result of an interaction between three mechanisms: sex chromosomes, nest temperatures, and yolk allocation. Dissanayake et al. (2021) show that nests have become deeper over 20 years, possibly in relation to climate change. Increasing elevation and decreasing nest temperature increases sex reversal in genotypical XX females to males. 
TypesLectotype: MNHN-RA 7102 (total length 131.5 mm), from Tasmania designated by Rawlinson (cited as “in prep.” by COGGER 1983). 
DiagnosisOrginal description: “[Scales smooth] Scales with 5 white lines like those of Gymnophthalmus” (Gray 1839)

Original description (buddeni): “Frontonasal large and in contact with rostral; nasals widely separated; prefrontals nar- rowly separated; frontal in contact with first two supra-oculars; frontoparietal undivided; small interparietal; parietals contact 2nd, 3rd and 4th supraoculars; one pair of nuchals; ear opening small about half the size of eye spectacle; supraoculars 4-4, second largest; 5 supraciliaries; 7 supralabials; 6 infralabials; mid body scale rows 26. Measurements of Holotype (mm): Snout vent length 31.7; vent tail length 39.8; axilla to groin length 19.0; snout to axilla length 10.2. Colouration of Holotype (in alcohol): Dorsally greenish brown; commencing at the nuchals is a thin black dorsal stripe which extends almost to the level of the hindlimbs; a white dorsolateral stripe on either side commences just behind a level with the ear and extends to the base of the tail; laterally a white supralabial stripe extends over the auricular and becomes a white mid lateral stripe extending to the groin; a black stripe commencing on the snout runs through the eye and becomes a broad upper lateral stripe, bound on either side by the dorsolateral and midlateral white stripes; ventrolaterally creamish on sides of head to a level with the ear, becoming greyish-green on the body; ventrally off white beneath the head, remainder grey.” (Wells and Wellington 1985: 22) 
CommentPhylogenetics. Dissanayake et al. 2021, 2022 found five well-supported diagnosable operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within B. duperreyi. The genetic distances between the mitochondrial lineages of B. duperreyi varied from 2.3% (Tasmania cf southern Victoria) to 5.3% (western South Australia cf Tasmania).

Synonymy: partly after SHEA & SADLIER 1999.

Type species: Tiliqua duperreyi is the type species of the genus Acritoscincus Wells & Wellington 1985: 22. Acritoscincus is a nomen novum pro Eulepis
Fitzinger 1843 which is pre-occupied by Eulepis Dalmann, MS. in Billberg, 1820 (Lepidoptera). This species is also the type species of the genus Bassiana HUTCHINSON et al. 1990. Probably listed in error by FRANK & RAMUS 1995. 
EtymologyNamed after Captain Louis-Isadore Duperrey (1786-1865), a French naval officer. 
  • Baehr, M. 1976. Beiträge zur Verbreitung und Ökologie tasmanischer Reptilien. Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk. (A) 292: 1-24 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Couper, P., Covacevich, J., Amey, A. & Baker, A. 2006. The genera of skinks (Family Scincidae) of Australia and its island territories: diversity, distribution and identification. in: Merrick, J.R., Archer, M., Hickey, G.M. & Lee, M.S.Y. (eds.). Evolution and Zoogeography of Australasian Vertebrates. Australian Scientific Publishing, Sydney, pp. 367-384
  • Dissanayake, D. S., Holleley, C. E., & Georges, A. 2021. Effects of natural nest temperatures on sex reversal and sex ratios in an Australian alpine skink. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1-11 - get paper here
  • Dissanayake, D. S., Holleley, C. E., Deakin, J. E., & Georges, A. 2021. High elevation increases the risk of Y chromosome loss in Alpine skink populations with sex reversal. Heredity, 1-12 - get paper here
  • Dissanayake, Duminda S. B.; Clare E. Holleley, Joanna Sumner, Jane Melville, Arthur Georges 2022. Lineage diversity within a widespread endemic Australian skink to better inform conservation in response to regional-scale disturbance. Ecology and Evolution 12(3): e8627. - get paper here
  • Doody, J S; 2019. Intellagama lesueurii (Australian Water Dragon); Acritoscincus duperreyi (Three-lined Skink); Lampropholis guichenoti (Garden Skink). Interspecific communal nesting. Herpetological Review 50 (1): 141 - get paper here
  • Dubey, S. & Shine, R. 2010. Evolutionary Diversification of the Lizard Genus Bassiana (Scincidae) across Southern Australia. PLoS One 5 (9): e12982 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol. 5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Ezaz, T. et al. 2009. Sex Chromosome Evolution in Lizards: Independent Origins and Rapid Transitions. Cytogenet Genome Res 127: 249-260 - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • FLATT THOMAS; RICHARD SHINE; PEDRO A. BORGES-LANDAEZ and SHARON J. DOWNES 2001. Phenotypic variation in an oviparous montane lizard (Bassiana duperreyi): the effects of thermal and hydric incubation environments. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 74: 339–350 - get paper here
  • Frank, Norman & Ramus, Erica 1995. A Complete Guide to Scientific and Common Names of Reptiles and Amphibians of the World. Pottsville: N G Publishing Inc., 377 pp.
  • Gray, J. E. 1838. Catalogue of the slender-tongued saurians, with descriptions of many new genera and species. Part 1. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (1) 1: 274-283 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1839. Catalogue of the slender-tongued saurians, with descriptions of many new genera and species. Part 2. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 2 (10): 287-293 - get paper here
  • Greer, Allen E. 1982. A new species of Leiolopisma (Lacertilia: Scincidae) from Western Australia. Rec. Austral. Mus. 34 (12): 549-573 - get paper here
  • Hutchinson M N; Donnellan S C; Baverstock P R; Krieg M; Simms S; Burgin S 1990. Immunological relationships and generic revision of the Australian lizards assigned to the genus Leiolopisma (Scincidae: Lygosominae). Australian Journal of Zoology 38 (5): 535-554 - get paper here
  • Leal, Francisca and Martha Patricia Ramírez-Pinilla 2010. Evolution and development of the extraembryonic membranes in lizards: Heterochronies and placentotrophy. Herp. Cons. Biol. 5 (2) - get paper here
  • Li, H., Elphick, M. & Shine, R. 2016. Potential targets for selection during the evolution of viviparity in cold-climate reptiles. Oecologia, doi:10.1007/s00442-016-3752-9 - get paper here
  • Radder, R.S.; Pike, D.A.; Quinn, A. and Shine, R. 2009. Offspring Sex in a Lizard Depends on Egg Size. Curr. Biol. 19 (13): 1102-1105, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.05.027 - get paper here
  • Radder, Rajkumar S.; Alexander E. Quinn, Arthur Georges, Stephen D. Sarre and Richard Shine 2008. Genetic evidence for co-occurrence of chromosomal and thermal sex-determining systems in a lizard. Biology Letters 4: 176–178 - get paper here
  • Radder, Rajkumar; Shine, Richard 2007. Germinal bed condition in a polyautochronic single-clutched lizard, Bassiana duperreyi (Scincidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 28 (1): 159-162 - get paper here
  • Rawlinson, P. A. 1974. Biogeography and ecology of the reptiles of Tasmania and the Bass Strait area. In: Williams, W. D. (ed.) Biogeography and Ecology in Tasmania,Chapt. 11. The Hague: Junk, pp. 291-338 - get paper here
  • Shine R, Elphick MJ, Donnellan S. 2002. Co-occurrence of multiple, supposedly incompatible modes of sex determination in a lizard population. Ecol Lett 5: 486–489 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1937. A review of the genus Lygosoma (Scincidae: Reptilia) and its allies. Records of the Indian Museum 39 (3): 213-234
  • Stewart, James R. and Tom W. Ecay 2010. Patterns of maternal provision and embryonic mobilization of calcium in oviparous and viviparous squamate reptiles. Herp. Cons. Biol. 5 (2) - get paper here
  • Storr, G. M., Smith, L. A. & Johnstone, R. E. 1981. Lizards of Western Australia. I. Skinks. Perth: University of Western Australia Press and Western Australian Museum, 200 pp.
  • Swan, G.; Sadlier, R.; Shea, G. 2017. A field guide to reptiles of New South Wales. Reed New Holland, 328 pp.
  • Taylor, R. J.;Dudley, A.;Gale, P. G. 1993. Reptiles and amphibians in sclerophyll forest surrounding Old Chum Dam in north-eastern Tasmania. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 23 (1): 26-31
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
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