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Actinemys pallida (SEELIGER, 1945)

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Higher TaxaEmydidae, Emydinae, Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Southwestern Pond Turtle, Southern Pacific Pond Turtle 
SynonymClemmys marmorata pallida SEELINGER 1945
Clemmys marmorata pallida — STEBBINS 1985: 99
Clemmys marmorata pallida — LINER 1994
Clemmys marmorata pallida — CROTHER 2000
Actinemys marmorata pallida — MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2006
Emys pallida — SPINKS et al. 2014
Emys pallida — SPINKS et al. 2016
Emys pallida — TTWG 2017
Actinemys pallida — CROTHER et al. 2017
Actinemys pallida — SEIDEL & ERNST 2017 
DistributionUSA (S California), Mexico (N Baja California); central coast range south of the San Francisco Bay area to the species’ southern range boundary, including the Mojave River (Spinks et al. 2014).

Type locality: “Lower Coyote Creek, near Alamitos, Orange County, California”  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: MVZ 6716, adult female 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (pallida): Inguinal plates absent (60 percent) or small (34 percent). The sides and ventral surface of the neck usually have a light uniform background color with dark spots.
 
CommentRelationships: See E. marmorata. Spinks et al. (2014) used more DNA data to distinguish between a northern and southern clade which they recommended to call E. marmorata and E. pallida.

Distribution: See Spinks et al. (2014: Fig. 2) for a map of E. marmorata and E. pallida, based on genetic data.

Hybridization: Emys marmorata and Emys pallida show very limited intergradation in a few populations in the northern central coast range and adjacent Sierra Nevada foothills, although at all intergrade sites we also found pure individuals of the locally prevalent species

Habitat: freshwater (swamps, ponds, rivers) 
EtymologyThe name marmorata is from the Latin marmor, marble; refers to the marbled (mottled) pattern of the carapace. 
References
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.). 2017. Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding. 8th edition. SSAR Herpetological Circular 43: 1-104 - get paper here
  • Liner, E.A. 1994. Scientific and common names for the Amphibians and Reptiles of Mexico in English and Spanish. Herpetological Circular 23: 1-113
  • McCord, W.P. & Joseph-Ouni, M. 2006. Chelonian Illustrations # 24 - North American Wood and Pond Turtles. Reptilia (GB) (44): 83-86 - get paper here
  • Seeliger, L.M. 1945. Variation in the Pacific Mud Turtle, Clemmys marmorata. Copeia 1945 (3): 150-159 - get paper here
  • Seidel, Michael E. & Carl H. Ernst 2017. A Systematic Review of the Turtle Family Emydidae Vertebrate Zoology 67 (1): 1–122 - get paper here
  • Spinks, P.Q., Thomson, R.C., McCartney-Melstad, E., Bradley Shaffer, H. 2016. Phylogeny and temporal diversification of the New World pond turtles (Emydidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 103: 85-97 - get paper here
  • Spinks, Phillip Q.; Robert C. Thomson, and H. Bradley Shaffer 2014. The advantages of going large: genome-wide SNPs clarify the complex population history and systematics of the threatened western pond turtle. Molecular Ecology. 23(9): 2228-2241. - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • TTWG; Anders G.J. Rhodin, John B. iverson, Roger Bour, Uwe Fritz, Arthur GeoRges, H. BRadley Shaffer, and Peter Paul van Dijk 2017. Turtles of the World: Annotated Checklist and Atlas of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status (8th Ed.). In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., Pritchard, P.C.H., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Ed Chelonian Research Monographs 7:1–292. doi: 10.3854/crm.7.checklist.atlas.v8.2017 - get paper here
 
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