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Agkistrodon laticinctus (GLOYD & CONANT, 1934)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesE: Broad-banded Copperhead
pictigaster: Trans-Pecos Copperhead
G: Breitband-Kupferkopf 
SynonymAgkistrodon contortrix laticinctus GLOYD & CONANT 1934
Agkistrodon mokasen laticinctus — GLOYD & CONANT 1943: 156
Agkistrodon mokeson pictigaster GLOYD & CONANT 1943: 156
Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster — GLOYD & CONANT 1990
Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus — GLOYD & CONANT 1990
Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 228
Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 228
Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster — CROTHER 2000: 56
Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus — CROTHER 2000: 56
Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 486
Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000” 488
Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster — CROTHER et al. 2012
Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus — CROTHER et al. 2012
Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus — LAITA 2013
Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster — LOVE 2013
Agkistrodon laticinctus — BURBRINK & GUIHER 2014
Agkistrodon laticinctus — CROTHER et al. 2017 
DistributionUSA (C/NC Texas, into C Oklahoma, north to Kansas)

Type locality: Texas, Bexar county, 26 miles (41.8 km) NW San Antonio.

pictigaster: Texas, adjacent Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila); Type locality: Maple Canyon, Chisos Mountains, 5,200 feet elevation, Brewster County, Texas;  
Reproductionviviparous; facultative parthenogenesis (BOOTH et al. 2012, JORDAN et al. 2015). 
TypesHolotype: UMMZ 75599, adult male
Holotype: Chicago Acad. Sci. No. 4857 [pictigaster] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Combining characteristics for the subspecies A. c. laticinctus and A. c. pictigaster, we provide a diagnosis for A. laticinctus. The broad-banded cop- perhead (A. laticinctus) is a medium-sized pit viper with an average adult size of 56–76 cm and a maximum size of 95 cm (Gloyd & Conant, 1990; Conant & Collins, 1991), with a ratio of tail to total length of 0.11–0.18 in males and 0.11–0.16 in females. There is a single anal plate, keeled dorsal scales, and typically 23 midbody scale rows (range 21–25; Gloyd & Conant, 1990). Subcaudals range from 38 to 62 in males and from 39 to 57 in females, whereas ventral scales number 138–155 with no variation between sexes (Gloyd & Conant, 1990). Supralabials and infralabials range from 7 to 10 (mode 8) and 8 to 12 (mode 10), respectively, and total postoculars + suboculars range from 2 to 6 (mode 4; Gloyd & Conant, 1990). A combination of geography and colour pattern distinguishes the broad- banded copperhead from related species. There are 10– 18 brown to red cross-bands in males (10–21 in A. contortrix) and 10–18 in females (11–20 in A. contortrix) on a light to medium- to light-brown back- ground. Cross-bands do not narrow at midbody (Gloyd & Conant, 1990), whereas they generally narrow at the midbody in A. contortrix. Head coloration typically matches that of the cross-bands with a lighter cheek stripe (Gloyd & Conant, 1990). The approximate distribution of the A. laticinctus includes western and central Texas, central Oklahoma, and eastern Kansas, whereas the range of A. contortrix extends from Connecticut to Florida along the Atlantic coast, west to include eastern Texas north through eastern Oklaho- ma into eastern Kansas (Fig. 5A). Hybridization between the broad-banded copperhead and the eastern copperhead occurs along an ecological transition zone from south eastern Texas north to eastern Kansas, defined by an increasing elevation, decreasing precipitation, and transition from mixed forest and cypress swamp to prairie grassland. Diagnosis may be difficult for some individuals in this area without additional morphological data (Fig. 5A) [BURBRINK & GUIHER 2015]. 

Hybridization: A. laticinctus hybridizes over a broad area with A. contortrix. 
EtymologySpecific epithet of laticinctus refers to colour pattern, derived from Latin latus and cinctus, translated as ‘side’ or ‘broad’ and ‘banded’, respectively. 
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