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Ameivula confusioniba (ARIAS, DE CARVALHO, RODRIGUES & ZAHER, 2011)

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Common Names 
SynonymCnemidophorus confusionibus ARIAS, DE CARVALHO, RODRIGUES & ZAHER 2011
Ameivula confusionibus — HARVEY et al. 2012
Cnemidophorus confusionibus — BASTO DA SILVA & ÁVILA-PIRES 2013
Ameivula confusioniba — ARIAS et al. 2014 
DistributionNW Brazil (Piauí: Caatinga)

Type locality: Toca da Cabocla (8° 5528" S, 43° 2658" W), Parque Nacional da Serra das Confusões, Caracol municipality, state of Piauí, Brazil, elevation 450 m  
TypesHolotype: MZUSP 100193 (field number MRT 4629), adult male, collected by Hussam Zaher, Miguel T. Rodrigues and Felipe Curcio on 7 october 2000.
Paratypes. MZUSP 100187, 100188, 100190, 100191 
CommentGroup: this species belongs to the ocellifer group,

Diagnosis. A species of the ocellifer group with granules in the supraorbital semicircles, and no anal spurs in males. Cnemidophorus confusionibus differs from all the other members of the ocellifer group by color pattern and a high number of lamellae on the fourth toe. In addition, differs from C. jalapensis by having 18–20 (x= 17.5) fem- oral pores (11– 16, x= 13.3 in C. jalapensis), 22–28 (x= 24.9) scales around tail (19–26, x= 22.7), 29–35 (x= 30.4) lamellae on the fourth toe (26–28, x= 27), lateral spots present (absent), paravertebral stripes absent (present), gular region and ventrolateral aspect of head immaculate (lime-green), and larger body size (smaller body size, SVL= 53.45 mm). Cnemidophorus confusionibus differs from C. mumbuca by having 29–35 (x= 30.4) lamellae on the fourth toe (24–32, x= 27.4 in C. mumbuca), paravertebral stripes absent (present), dorsolateral stripes incomplete and extending from behind the nape region to the first one-third of the tail (dorsolateral stripes, incomplete, extend- ing from behind supraciliary region), one dark brown lateral band, (dorsolateral and lateral band, ochre), a longitudinal row of bright yellow spots on lower flank (bluish white spots, only males). Cnemidophorus confusionibus differs from C. ocellifer by having 18–20 (x= 17.5) femoral pores (14–17, x= 16 femoral pores in C. ocellifer), 188–211 (x= 201,6) dorsal scales (172–188, x= 181), paravertebral stripes absent (present), dorsolateral stripes extending from behind nape region to first one-third of tail (dorsolateral stripes extending from behind supraciliary region), 2–3 lateral spots only in the axial region (lateral spots present, from fore to hind limbs), and dorsal surface of hindlimb without freckling (dorsal surface of hindlimb with black freckling). Cnemidophorus confusionibus dif- fers from C. nativo by having 18–20 (x= 17.5) femoral pores (24–26, x= 24 in C. nativo), 27–29 (x= 28.2) ventral rows (29–32, x= 30.8), nostril opens usually in the suture between anterior and posterior nasal plates (nostril opens in the anterior nasal plate), second subocular contacts fifth and sixth supralabials ventrally (contacts fourth, fifth, and sixth supralabials ventrally), mid-dorsal stripe absent (present and with a posteriorly ondulating margin), ven- tral surface of the head, body, and tail predominantly immaculate (light blue), and bixesual (only females). Cnemi- dophorus confusionibus differs from C. littoralis and C. abaetensis by having 18–20 (x= 17.5) femoral pores (29–34, x= 32.6 in C. littoralis and 27–31, x= 24 in C. abaetensis), 27–29 (x= 28.2) ventral scale rows (32– 38, x= 34.9 in C. littoralis and 30–35, x= 32 in C. abaetensis), 188–211 (x= 201.6) dorsal scales (168–191, x= 174.9 in C. litto- ralis and 210–240, x= 221.8 in C. abaetensis), 8 longitudinal ventral scale rows (8 a 10 in C. abaetensis and 10 in C. littoralis), 5 superciliaries (6 in both species), mid-dorsal stripe absent (present in both species), a brown tail (bright blue-green to emerald green in both species), stripe in the tail absent (present in both species). Cnemidopho- rus confusionibus differs from C. venetacaudus sp. nov. (see below) by having 18–20 (x= 17.5) femoral pores (34– 45, x= 38 femoral pores in C. venetacaudus), 27–29 (x= 28.2) transverse ventral scale rows (30–32, x= 31.2), 8 longitudinal ventral scale rows (10), 22–28 (x= 24.9) scales around tail (31–34, x= 31.7), 87–105 (x= 95) scales around midbody (114–129, x= 119.5), 188–211 (x= 201.6) dorsal scale rows (190–218, x= 204.8), 5 superciliaries (6), dorsal stripes present (absent), a lateral row of spots present (absent), and a smaller body size (large size, SVL= 83.3 mm) [from ARIAS et al. 2011; see BASTO DA SILVA & ÁVILA-PIRES 2013 for a more recent diagnosis] 
EtymologyThe specific name confusionibus derives from the Latin “confusionis” (confusion) + “bus” (from), and refers to the type locality (Serra das Confusões) where the new species is found. 
  • Arias, Federico Jose, Mauro Teixeira Junior, Renato Sousa Recoder, Celso Morato de Carvalho, Hussam Zaher and Miguel Trefault Rodrigues. 2014. Whiptail lizards in South America: A new Ameivula (Aquamata, Teiidae) from Planalto dos Gerais, Eastern Brazilian Cerrado. Amphibia-Reptilia 35 (2): 227-242 - get paper here
  • Arias, Federico; Celso Morato de Carvalho, Hussam Zaher, and Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues 2014. A New Species of Ameivula (Squamata, Teiidae) from Southern Espinhaço Mountain Range, Brazil. Copeia 2014 (1): 95–105 - get paper here
  • ARIAS, FEDERICO; CELSO MORATO DE CARVALHO, MIGUEL TREFAUT RODRIGUES & HUSSAM ZAHER 2011. Two new species of Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae) from the Caatinga, Northwest Brazil. Zootaxa 2787: 37–54 - get paper here
  • BASTO DA SILVA, MARCÉLIA & TERESA C.S. ÁVILA-PIRES 2013. The genus Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae) in State of Piauí, northeastern Brazil, with description of a new species. Zootaxa 3681: 455–477 - get paper here
  • HARVEY, MICHAEL B.; GABRIEL N. UGUETO & RONALD L. GUTBERLET, Jr. 2012. Review of Teiid Morphology with a Revised Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Teiidae (Lepidosauria: Squamata). Zootaxa 3459: 1–156 - get paper here
  • Madella-Auricchio, Cláudia Renata; Paulo Auricchio Enio Saraiva Soares 2017. Reptile species composition in the Middle Gurguéia and comparison with inventories in the eastern Parnaíba River Basin, State of Piauí, Brazil Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 57(28): 375-386,
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