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Amphisbaena hoogmoedi OLIVEIRA, VAZ-SILVA, SANTOS-JR, GRABOSKI, TEIXEIRA JR, DAL VECHIO & RIBEIRO, 2018

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Higher TaxaAmphisbaenidae, Amphisbaenia, Lacertoidea, Squamata 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymAmphisbaena hoogmoedi OLIVEIRA, VAZ-SILVA, SANTOS-JR, GRABOSKI, TEIXEIRA JR, DAL VECHIO & RIBEIRO 2018 
DistributionBrazil (Pará)

Type locality: right bank of Teles Pires River (- 9.352°S -56.692° W, 220 m elevation; datum WGS 84), area impacted by the Teles Pires hydroelectric dam, Jacareacanga municipality, Pará, Brazil  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: MZUSP 106219 (field number CHTP 13677), adult female, collected on 23rd September 2014 by faunal rescue team of Arcadis-Logos. Paratypes. All collected at type locality by faunal rescue team of Arcadis-Logos. MPEG 32283 (field number CHTP 13670), female collected on 29rd September 2014; MPEG 32284 (field number CHTP 13672), male collected on 23rd September 2014; MZUSP 106220 (field number CHTP 13683), male collected on 23rd September 2014; MPEG 32285 (field number CHTP 13759), male collected on 30rd September 2014. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Amphisbaena hoogmoedi sp. nov. is a medium-sized amphisbaenid (291 mm maximum snout-vent length), and can be distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characters (see details in Appendix II): (1) snout convex in profile view, sligthly compressed not keeled; (2) pectoral scales arranged in regular annuli; (3) conspicuous autotomic site between 7th–8th caudal annuli; (4) 247–252 dorsal half-annuli; (5) 27 caudal annuli; (6) tail length representing 9.5–10.4% of snout-vent length; (7) four precloacal pores arranged in sequence, (8) three supralabials, (9) a rounded tail, (10) 22–24 dorsal segments in midbody half-annulus; (11) postmalar row absent; (12) head length 2.1–2.9% of snout-vent length; (13) prefrontals length 46.6–49.5% of head length; (14) prefrontals suture length 38–44.6% of head length; (15) small malar length 10.6–13.4% of head length; (16) second infralabial length 33.8–38.5% of head length; (17) ventral length of head 2.7–2.9% of snout-vent length; (18) mouth length 80.2–81.8% of head length; (19) third infralabial length 16.4–19.6% of head length; (20) snout length 62.5–78.6% of head length; (21) ocular length 23.4–26.2% of head length; (22) mental length 23.2–25.4% of head length; (23) postmental length 27.2–31.3% of head length; (24) frontals suture length 23.4–32.3% of head length; (25) postocular width 25–31.9% of maximun width of head; (26) first supralabial length 24.9–30.6% of head length; (27) second supralabial length 27.7–30% of head length; and (28) second supralabial height 26.9–28.8% of maximun head height.

Comparisons with other species. Amphisbaena sp. nov. is diagnosed of all other South American amphisbaenians by combination of characters. Differs from Amphisbaena acrobeles (Ribeiro, Castro-Mello & Nogueira, 2009), A. bilabialata (Stimson, 1972), A. kingii (Bell, 1833), A. anomala (Barbour, 1914), Mesobaena huebneri Mertens, 1925; M. rhachicephala Hoogmoed, Pinto, Rocha & Pereira, 2009; and all Leposternon species, mainly in having the snout convex in profile view, sligthly compressed not keeled (vs. snout hardly compressed forming a sharp and prominent keel or snout depressed shovel-like). Differs from A. anomala and all Leposternon species by having pectoral scales arranged in regular annuli (vs. pectoral scales with an irregular form, and dermal annuli not regularly arranged).
Amphisbaena sp. nov. differs all other South American amphisbaenians, except A. absaberi, A. arenaria, A. bahiana, A. bedai, A. borelli, A. brasiliana, A. carli, A. cuiabana, A. ignatiana, A. kraoh, A. roberti, A. saxosa, and A. steindachneri (Appendix II), mainly in having snout slightly compressed not keeled (vs. snout not compressed and rounded). Differs from A. bahiana, A. brasiliana, A. carli, A. kraoh, and A. saxosa mainly by having 247–252 dorsal half-annuli, 27 caudal annuli and a tail length representing 9.5–10.4% of to snout-vent length (vs. less than 247 or more than 252 dorsal half-annuli, less than 27 caudal annuli and less than 9.5). Differs from Amphisbaena absaberi in having 247–252 dorsal half-annuli, four precloacal pores arranged in sequence, and conspicuous autotomic site between 7th–8th caudal annuli (vs. 239–242 dorsal half-annuli, two precloacal pores separated by cloacal segments, and autotomic site between 5th–6th caudal annuli), head length 2.1–2.9% of snout-vent length (vs. 3.2–4.2%). Differs from Amphisbaena arenaria and A. bedai in having four precloacal pores arranged in sequence and three supralabials (vs. two pairs of pre-cloacal pores separated by two medial segments extending from the cloacal plate and four supralabials). Differs from A. borelli, A. roberti and A. steindachneri in having a rounded tail and 22–24 dorsal segments at midbody (vs. a keeled tail tip and less than 20 dorsal segments at midbody). Differs from A. cuiabana and A. ignatiana mainly in having 247–252 dorsal half-annuli, 27 tail annuli (vs. 278–309 and 15–20, and 255–263 and 15–20, respectively), prefrontals length 46.6–49.5% of head length (vs. 36.7–45% and 32,7%, respectively), prefrontals suture length 38–44.6% of head length (vs. 30.5–36.7% and 30%, respectively), small malar length 10.6–13.4% of ventral length of head (vs. 1.1–8.3% and 4.5%, respectively), second infralabial length 33.8–38.5% of head length (vs. 11–32% and 26.3%, respectively). In addition, it differs from A. cuiabana mainly in having ventral length of head 2.7–2.9% of snout-vent length (vs. 1.8–2.5%), mouth length 80.2–81.8% of head length (vs. 57.9–65.4%), and third infralabial length 16.4–19.6% of head length (vs. 6.8–12%). Differs from A. ignatiana mainly in having four precloacal pores, three supralabials and postmalar row absent (vs. six precloacal pores, four supralabials and postmalar row present), snout length 62.5–78.6% of head length (vs. 51%), ocular length 23.4–26.2% of head length (vs. 46.5%), mental length 23.2–25.4% of ventral length of head (vs. 19.5%), postmental length 27.2–31.3% of ventral length of head (vs. 19.5%), frontals suture length 23.4–32.3% of head length (vs. 36.4%), tail length 9.5–10.4% of snout-vent length (vs. 11.6%), postocular width 25–31.9% of maximun width of head (vs. 34.7%), first supralabial length 24.9–30.6% of head length (vs. 19.7%), second supralabial length 27.7–30% of head length (vs. 13.3%) and second supralabial height 26.9–28.8% of maximun head height (vs. 39.6%). 
Comment 
EtymologyAmphisbaena hoogmoedi sp. nov. is named in honor of Dr. Marinus S. Hoogmoed (National Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, the Netherlands, currently at the Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil), for his contribution to the knowledge of the Neotropical herpetofauna especially to the amphisbaenian taxonomy. 
References
  • OLIVEIRA, ELAINE C.S.; WILIAN VAZ-SILVA, ALFREDO P. SANTOS-JR, ROBERTA GRABOSKI, MAURO JR TEIXEIRA, FRANCISCO DAL VECHIO, SÍRIA RIBEIRO 2018. A new four-pored Amphisbaena Linnaeus, 1758 (Amphisbaenia, Amphisbaenidae) from Brazilian Amazon. Zootaxa 4420 (4): 451–474 - get paper here
 
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