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Amphisbaena microcephalum (WAGLER, 1824)

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Higher TaxaAmphisbaenidae, Amphisbaenia, Lacertoidea, Squamata 
Subspecies 
Common NamesSmallhead Worm Lizard 
SynonymLeposternon microcephalus WAGLER 1824
Amphisbaena punctata WIED 1825: 500
Leposternon microcephalum FITZINGER 1826
Lepidosternon maximiliani WIEGMANN 1834: 21
Lepidosternon microcephalum — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 505
Lepidosternon macrocephalum - SMITH 1848: 67 (in errore)
Lepidosternon phocaena DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 507
Lepidosternon microcephalum — GRAY 1865: 374
Lepidosternon phocaena — GRAY 1865: 375
Lepidosternon petersi STRAUCH 1881
Lepidosternon pfefferi WERNER 1910
Lepidosternon crassum STRAUCH 1881
Lepidosternon güntheri STRAUCH 1881
Leposternon guntheri - GANS 1967
Lepidosternum boulengeri BOETTGER 1885: 220
Lepidosternum strauchi BOETTGER 1885: 221
Lepidosternum affine BOETTGER 1885: 223
Lepidosternon boettgeri BOULENGER 1885
Lepidosternum onychocephalum BOETTGER 1885: 224
Lepidosternum latifrontale BOULENGER 1894: 345
Lepidosternum affine — GÜNTHER 1897: 365
Lepidosternum borelli PERACCA 1895
Lepidosternum camerani PERACCA 1895
Lepidosternon phocaena — KOSLOWSKY 1898
Lepidosternon laticeps PERACCA 1904
Lepidosternon carcani PERACCA 1904
Lepidosternon phocoena — BRYGOO 1990: 13 (as synonym)
Leposternon microcephalum — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 2000
Amphisbaena microcephalum — MOTT & VIEITES 2009
Amphisbaena microcephala — OLIVEIRA et al. 2010
Leposternon microcephalum — AVILA et al. 2010
Leposternon microcephalum — AVILA et al. 2013
Leposternon microcephalum — CACCIALI et al. 2016 
DistributionBrazil (Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Espírito Santo),
Bolivia (Cochabamba, Santa Cruz), Paraguay, Uruguay,
N Argentina (Formosa, Chaco, Corrientes, Misiones, Entre Rios)

Type locality: ‘‘Dans les environs du village Mandiocca,. . . près de la montagne dos Orgaôs, sur un grand chemin bordé d’arbres,’’ Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: ZSM 31500.
Type: MSNTO R240 [Lepidosternum borelli PERACCA 1895]
Type: MSNTO R237 [Lepidosternum camerani PERACCA 1895]
Type: MSNTO R244 [Lepidosternon laticeps PERACCA 1904]
Type: MSNTO R238 [Lepidosternon carcani PERACCA 1904]
Lectotype: MZUSP 28386 [Lepidosternum latifrontale Boulenger, 1885]
Holotype: ZMB-R 1395 [Lepidosternon maximiliani Wiegmann, 1834]
Holotype: ZMB-R 1396 [Lepidosternon petersi Strauch, 1881] Holotype: MNHN (= MHNP) 488 [Lepidosternon phocaena Duméril & Bibron, 1839]
Holotype: ZIL 6654 [Lepidosternum affine Boettger, 1885]
Holotype: ZIL 6656 [Lepidosternum boulengeri Boettger, 1885]
Holotype: ZIL 316 [Lepidosternon crassum Strauch, 1881]
Holotype: ZIL 313 [Lepidosternon güntherii Strauch, 1881]
Holotype: ZIL 6653 [Lepidosternum onycocephalum Boettger, 1885]
Holotype: ZIL 6655 [Lepidosternum strauchi Boettger, 1885] 
CommentSynonymy: In a radical move, Gans (1971) synonymized most species of Leposternon with Leposternon microcephalum. See his discussion for detailed explanations.

Type species: Leposternon microcephalus WAGLER 1824 is the type species of the genus Leposternon WAGLER 1824, which was synonymized with Amphisbaena by MOTT & VIEITES 2009 (but still considered as valid by various authors, see synonymy).

Diagnosis (genus Leposternon): relatively large and robust body, head dorsoventrally compressed, nostrils opening on the ventral surface of snout, suture con‐ necting each nostril to the edge of mouth, nasal shield absent, rostronasal shield followed by a sequence of one to five enlarged shields along the dorsal surface of head, gular portion without segmental cover, more than two dermal annuli per vertebrae, tail very short with rounded tip, autotomic site absent on tail, and none to four preocloacal pores (Ribeiro et al., 2008, Ribeiro et al. 2011). 
References
  • Avila, L. J.; Martinez, L. E.; Morando, M. 2010. Lista de las lagartijas y anfisbaenas de Argentina: una actualización [en línea]. Ver.1.0. 1 Diciembre 2010 [Checklist of lizards and amphisbaenians of Argentina: An update]. Centro Nacional Patagónico CENPAT-CONICET. Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina. - get paper here
  • AVILA, LUCIANO JAVIER; LORENA ELIZABETH MARTINEZ & MARIANA MORANDO 2013. Checklist of lizards and amphisbaenians of Argentina: an update. Zootaxa 3616 (3): 201–238
  • Bérnils, R.S.; Batista, M.A. & Bertelli, P.W. 2001. Cobras e lagartos do Vale: levantamento das espécies de Squamata (Reptilia, Lepidosauria) da Bacia do Rio Itajai, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Rev. Est. Ambientais (Blumenau) 3 (1): 69-79
  • Boettger,O. 1885. Liste von Reptilien und Batrachiern aus Paraguay. Zeitschr. Naturw. 58 (3): 213-248 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1894. List of reptiles and batachians collected by Dr. T. Bohls near Asuncion, Paraguay. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 13: 342-348 - get paper here
  • Brygoo, E. R. 1990. Les types d'Amphisbaenidés, Pygopodidés, Xantusiidés (Reptiles, Sauriens) du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle - Catalogue critique. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. 12 (ser. 4) A (3-4), suppl.: 3-18
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  • Caldeira Costa, H.; Dias Fernandes, V.; Castro Rodrigues, A. & Neves Feio, R. 2009. Lizards and Amphisbaenians, municipality of Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Check List 5 (3): 732–745 - get paper here
  • Castro, T.M. & Teixeira, R.L. 2007. Straßenverkehr als Bedrohung für die Amphibien und Reptilien des Atlantischen Regenwalds in Südost-Brasilien. Eine Fallstudie. Sauria 29 (2): 35-42 - get paper here
  • Castro-Mello, C. 2000. A new species of Amphisbaena from Central Brazil (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae). Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 41 (916): 243-246
  • Dirksen, L. & De la Riva, I. 1999. The lizards and amphisbaenians of Bolivia (Reptilia, Squamata): checklist, localities, and bibliography. Graellsia 55: 199-215
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol.5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Falcione, Camila and Alejandra Hernando 2010. A new karyotypic formula for the genus Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae). Phyllomedusa 9 (1): 75-80 - get paper here
  • Filogonio, Renato; Conrado A. B. Galdino, Daniel P. R. Cabral, Alexandre F. Righi, Marcelo F. Lopes, and Luciana B. Nascimento 2009. SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN LEPOSTERNON MICROCEPHALUM AND L. WUCHERERI (SQUAMATA: AMPHISBAENIDAE) FROM MINAS GERAIS, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL. Herpetologica 65 (4): 353-362 - get paper here
  • Gans, C. 1971. Studies on Amphisbaenians. (4). A review of the amphisbaenid genus Leposternon. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 144 (6): 379-464
  • Gray,J.E. 1865. A revision of the genera and species of amphisbaenians with the descriptions of some new species now in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 16: 365-377 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1897. Notes on some reptiles and a frog from Argentina. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 20: 365-366 - get paper here
  • Kacoliris F.P.; Berkunsky I. & Williams J. 2006. Herpetofauna of Impenetrable, Argentinean Great Chaco. Phyllomedusa 5 (2): 149-158 - get paper here
  • Koski, Aline P. V. and Koski, Diogo A. 2017. Leposternon microcephalum (Small-headed Worm Lizard) Predation Herpetological Review 48 (1): 192-193 - get paper here
  • Koslowsky,J. 1898. Enumeración sistemática y distribución geográfica de los reptiles argentinos. Rev. Mus. La Plata 8: 161-200 - get paper here
  • Mott, Tamí; David R. Vieites 2009. Molecular phylogenetics reveals extreme morphological homoplasy in Brazilian worm lizards challenging current taxonomy. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 51 (2): 190-200 - get paper here
  • Navas, C.A. 2004. Morphological and physiological specialization for digging in amphisbaenians, an ancient lineage of fossorial vertebrates. The Journal of Experimental Biology 207, 2433-2441
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  • RIBEIRO, SIRIA; ALFREDO P. SANTOS-JR, HUSSAM ZAHER 2015. A new species of Leposternon Wagler, 1824 (Squamata, Amphisbaenia) from northeastern Argentina Zootaxa 4034 (2): 309–324
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  • Strussmann, Christine & Tami Mott 2009. Sympatric amphisbaenids from Manso Dam region, Mato Grosso State, Western Brazil, with the description of a new two-pored species of Amphisbaena (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 44 (1): 37 – 46 - get paper here
  • Vrcibradic, D.; C.F.D. Rocha; M.C. Kiefer; F.H. Hatano; A.F. Fontes; M. Almeida-Gomes; C.C. Siqueira; J.A.L. Pontes; V.N.T. Borges-Junior; L.O. Gil; T. Klaion; E.C.N. Rubião; M. Sluys. 2011. Herpetofauna, Estação Ecológica Estadual do Paraíso, state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Check List 7 (6): 745-749 - get paper here
  • Wagler,J. 1824. Serpentum Brasiliensium species novae, ou histoire naturelle des espèces nouvelles de serpens. In: Jean de Spix, Animalia nova sive species novae. [NAtrix bahiensis: 27,. Monaco, Typis Franc. Seraph. Hübschmanni, vii + 75 pp.
  • Werner,F. 1910. Über neue oder seltene Reptilien des Naturhistorischen Museums in Hamburg. ii. Eidechsen. Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst., vol. 27 (1909), suppl. no. 2, 1910, pp. 1-46; reprinted: 1910, Mitteil. Naturhist. Mus. Hamburg, vol. 27: 205-) - get paper here
  • Wied-Neuwied, M. Prinz zu 1825. Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte von Brasilien. Weimar, no. 1, xxii + 612 pp. - get paper here
  • Wiegmann,A.F.A. 1834. Herpetologia Mexicana, seu descriptio amphibiorum novae hispaniae , quae itineribus comitis de Sack, Ferdinandi Deppe et Chr. Guil. Schiede im Museum Zoologicum Berolinense Pervenerunt. Pars prima, saurorum species. Berlin, Lüderitz, iv + 54 pp. - get paper here
  • Zaracho, Víctor Hugo; Ingaramo, María del Rosario; Semhan, Romina Valeria; Etchepare, Eduardo; Acosta, José Luis; Falcione, Ana Camila; Álvarez, Blanca 2014. Herpetofauna de la Reserva Natural Provincial Isla Apipé Grande (Corrientes, Argentina) Cuad. herpetol. 28 (2): 153-160 - get paper here
 
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