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Amyda cartilaginea (BODDAERT, 1770)

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Higher TaxaTrionychidae (Trionychinae), Trionychoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
SubspeciesAmyda cartilaginea cartilaginea (BODDAERT 1770)
Amyda cartilaginea nakorn NUTAPHAND 1990
Amyda cartilaginea maculosa FRITZ, GEMEL, KEHLMAIER, VAMBERGER & PRASCHAG 2014 
Common NamesE: Black-rayed Soft-shelled Turtle, Asiatic Softshell Turtle
G: Knorpelweichschildkröte 
SynonymTestudo cartilaginea BODDAERT 1770
Testudo boddaerti SCHNEIDER 1787 (nomen subst. pro T. cartilaginea BODDAERT)
Testudo bodderti [sic] — SCHNEIDER 1787
Testudo rostrata THUNBERG 1787
Testudo striata SUCKOW 1798 (partim)
Trionyx stellatus GEOFFROY 1809 (nomen subst. pro T. cartilaginea BODDAERT)
Amyda javanica SCHWEIGGER in GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE 1809 (nom. nud.)
Trionyx javanicus GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE 1809
Aspidonectes javanicus — WAGLER 1830
Testudo gotaghol HAMILTON 1831 (nomen nudum)
Gymnopus Javanicus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 493
Trionyx cariniferus GRAY 1855
Aspilus (?) punctulatus GRAY 1864
Trionyx jeudi GRAY 1869
Trionyx ephippium THEOBALD 1875
Trionyx cartilagineus — BOULENGER 1889
Trionyx cartilagineus — SMEDLEY 1932
Trionyx nakornsrithammarajensis NUTAPHAND 1979
Trionyx cartilagineus — BONG HEANG 1987
Trionyx cartilagineus — ALDERTON 1988
Amyda cartilaginea — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989
Amyda nakornsrithammarajensis — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989
Trionyx cartilagineus nakorn NUTAPHAND 1990 (nom. nov. pro Trionyx nakornsrithammarajensis)
Amyda cartilaginea — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 461
Amyda cartilaginea — COX et al. 1998: 134
Amyda cartilaginea — SANG et al. 2009
Amyda cartilaginea cartilaginea — FRITZ et al. 2014 
DistributionMalaysia, Indonesia (Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi), Singapore, India (Assam)

Populations on the Lesser Sunda Islands and Sulawesi are thought to be introduced (Koch et al. 2008; van Dijk et al. 2012), and this could be also true for Yunnan, China (Kuchling 1995).

Type locality: Unknown (fide KING & BURKE 1989); designated as "Java" by Baur 1893: 220.

maculosa: Indonesia (Borneo); Type locality: Nanga Badau, Kalimantan, Indonesia (“Nanga Bandang, Borneo  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: MNHN 4150.
Holotype. NMW 30204:3, Natural History Museum Vienna, Franz Steindachner leg. 1874 [maculosa] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (Amyda): Posterior nares not reduced in size by the inner extension of the maxillaries. Alveolar surface of lower jaw without a longitudinal symphyseal ridge ; seven to eight pairs of pleuralia, all separated by neurals ; a single neural between the first pair of pleurals (fide BAUR 1893).

Diagnosis (maculosa). Amyda cartilaginea maculosa differs from the nominotypical subspecies by a more massive head with a relatively short and blunt proboscis, a lighter base colouration (olive to brown instead of dark brown to blackish), the lack of contrasting yellow spotting and less pronounced nuchal tubercles. Juveniles and young adults bear on their back a characteristic saddle-shaped dark mark. In addition, A. c. maculosa is genetically well-dif- ferentiated from all other taxa of Amyda. 
CommentSynonymy: There has been some confusion between Trionyx and Testudo phayrei in the older literature (see also that entry and references therein). T. phayrei was named after Lieut.-Col. Sir A. P. Phayre, Chief Commissioner of British Birma. Fritz et al. 2014 revalidated Amyda ornata ornata and A. o. phayrei, i.e. Trionyx ornatus GRAY 1861 and Trionyx phayrei THEOBALD 1868 have been removed from the synonymy of A. cartilaginea.

Distribution: not in Thailand (incl. Phuket) and other regions of Indochina fide Fritz et al. 2014. If A. ornata is recognized as valid (not as a synonym or subspecies of cartilaginea) then cartilaginea does not occur in Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, S Myanmar (= Burma), India (Mizoram, Manipur, Tripura), or Bangladesh. See map in TTWG 2017: 162.

Authorship: WIROT NUTAPHAND’s name is not spelled consistently. There are no “official” rules how to transliterate Thai names to Roman letters but WIROT is his first name, and NUTAPHAND his family name, which is usually cited as NUTAPHAND although the author would write his name also as “NUTPHAND” (based on O.S.G. PAUWELS, pers. comm.).

Nomenclature: See also MCCORD & PRITCHARD (2002) for a discussion of the name T. membranacea.

Type species: Trionyx javanicus GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE 1809 is the type species of the genus Amyda GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE 1809.

Habitat: freshwater (rivers and tributaries, lakes) 
Etymology 
References
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