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Anolis baleatus (COPE, 1864)

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesAnolis baleatus baleatus (COPE 1864)
Anolis baleatus altager SCHWARTZ 1975
Anolis baleatus caeruleolatus SCHWARTZ 1974
Anolis baleatus fraudator SCHWARTZ 1974
Anolis baleatus lineatacervix SCHWARTZ 1978
Anolis baleatus litorisilva SCHWARTZ 1974
Anolis baleatus multistruppus SCHWARTZ 1974
Anolis baleatus samanae SCHWARTZ 1974
Anolis baleatus scelestus SCHWARTZ 1974
Anolis baleatus sublimis SCHWARTZ 1974 
Common NamesDominican giant anole, Puerto Plata Anole 
SynonymEupristis baleatus COPE 1864: 168
Anolis ricordii baleatus — MERTENS 1939: 68
Anolis baleatus - SCHWARTZ 1974
Anolis baleatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 223
Anolis baleatus — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Xiphosurus baleatus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis baleatus baleatus (COPE 1864)
Eupristis baleatus COPE 1864: 168
Semiurus baleatus baleatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 161
Xiphosurus baleatus baleatus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis baleatus altager SCHWARTZ 1975
Semiurus baleatus altager — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 161
Xiphosurus baleatus altager — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis baleatus caeruleolatus SCHWARTZ 1974
Semiurus baleatus caeruleolatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 161
Xiphosurus baleatus caeruleolatus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis baleatus fraudator SCHWARTZ 1974
Semiurus baleatus fraudator — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 161
Xiphosurus baleatus fraudator — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis baleatus lineatacervix SCHWARTZ 1978
Semiurus baleatus lineatacervix — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 161
Xiphosurus baleatus lineatacervix — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis baleatus litorisilva SCHWARTZ 1974
Anolis baleatus litorisilva SCHWARTZ 1974: 133
Semiurus baleatus litorisilva — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 162
Xiphosurus baleatus litorisilva — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis baleatus multistruppus SCHWARTZ 1974
Anolis baleatus multistruppus SCHWARTZ 1974: 121
Semiurus baleatus multistruppus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 162
Xiphosurus baleatus multistruppus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis baleatus samanae SCHWARTZ 1974
Anolis baleatus samanae SCHWARTZ 1974: 130
Semiurus baleatus samanae — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 162
Xiphosurus baleatus samanae — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis baleatus scelestus SCHWARTZ 1974
Anolis baleatus scelestus SCHWARTZ 1974: 135
Semiurus baleatus scelestus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 162
Xiphosurus baleatus scelestus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis baleatus sublimis SCHWARTZ 1974
Anolis baleatus sublimis SCHWARTZ 1974: 124
Semiurus baleatus sublimis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 162
Xiphosurus baleatus sublimis — NICHOLSON et al. 2012 
DistributionHispaniola, Dominican Republic, Suriname (introduced)

baleatus: Cordillera Septentrional and northern coastal plain, República Dominicana. Altitudinal distribution near sea level to 2200 ft. Type locality: Santo Domingo

altager: Cordillera Central. Type locality: “0.5 km S. Rancho Arriba, 2200 ft (671 m), Peravia Province, Republica Dominicana”

caeruleolatus: northeast República Dominicana; intergrades with A. b. scelestus in Hato Mayor Province. Altitudinal distribution sea level to 1200 ft.

fraudator: Sierra Martin Garcia; southern slopes of Cordillera Central and Sierra de Ocoa. Altitudinal distribution sea level to 3000 ft.

lineatacervix: Isla Saona.

litorisilva: extreme eastern República Dominicana.

multistruppus: lower eastern slopes of Cordillera Central, from La Vega to Piedra Blanca; questionably from Rio Bao.

samanae: Peninsula de Samanâ and islets in Bahia de Samami, República Dominicana. Altitudinal distribution sea level to 1673 ft.

scelestus: south-central and mideastern República Dominicana.

sublimis: uplands of Cordillera Central. Altitudinal distribution 2000 ft. to 4000 ft.

INCERTAE SEDIS: Specimens from Cambita Garabitos, San Cristtibal Prov., and Batero, Monte Plata Prov., are unassigned subspecifically. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.8.29.22.
Holotype: MCZ 132356 [altager]
Holotype: USNM 193976 [caeruleolatus]
Holotype: USNM 193978 [baleatusfraudator]
Holotype: USNM 197325 [lineatacervix]
Holotype: USNM 193977 [litorisilva]
Holotype: USNM 193975 [multistruppus]
Holotype: CM 54105 [samanae]
Holotype: CM 54106 [scelestus]
Holotype: CM 54104 [sublimis] 
CommentIllustrations: Hassler, 1930 (as Anolis ricordii); Mertens, 1939; Mertens, 1940; Cochran, 1941 (as A. ricordii); Williams, 1962 b; Schwartz, 1978 d; Henderson and Schwartz, 1984 a; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985.

Synonymy: Has been listed as synonym of Anolis ricordii by BOULENGER 1885.

Species group: Xiphosurus cuvieri species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
References
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Cochran, D.M. 1941. The herpetology of Hispaniola. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 177: vii + 398 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1864. Contributions to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 16: 166-181. - get paper here
  • Haberham, Z.L. 2003. Anolis baleatus (COPE 1861). Lacerta 61 (1): 1-2 - get paper here
  • Hassler, W.G. 1930. Digging for lizard nests. Nat. Hist. 30:409-20.
  • Henderson, R.W., and Schwartz, A. 1984. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of Hispaniola. Spec. PubI. Milwaukee Public Mus. Biol. and Geol. (4):1-70.
  • Hoogmoed, M. S. 1981. Introduced species of reptiles in Surinam. Notes on the herpetofauna of Surinam VIII. Amphibia-Reptilia 1: 277-285 - get paper here
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER 2014. Characters of external morphology used in Anolis taxonomy—Definition of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples. Zootaxa 3774 (2): 201–257 - get paper here
  • Mahler, D. Luke; Shea M. Lambert, Anthony J. Geneva, Julienne Ng, S. Blair Hedges, Jonathan B. Losos, and Richard E. Glor 2016. Discovery of a Giant Chameleon-Like Lizard (Anolis) on Hispaniola and Its Significance to Understanding Replicated Adaptive Radiations The American Naturalist, DOI: 10.1086/687566 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1939. Herpetologische Ergebnisse einer Reise nach der Insel Hispaniola, Westindien. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) 449: 1-84.
  • Mertens, R. 1940. Zoologische Reisen auf der Insel Hispaniola (from Tierleben der Tropen). Verlag Dr. Waldemar Kramer, Frankfurt am Main, 155-241.
  • Nicholson, K. E., R. E. Glor, J. J. Kolbe, A. Larson, S. B. Hedges, and J. B. Losos 2005. Mainland colonization by island lizards. Journal of Biogeography 32: 929–938 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Schwartz Jr., Albert 1975. A new subspecies of Anolis baleatus Cope (Sauria, Iguanidae) from the Republica Dominicana. Florida Scientist 38 (1): 30-35 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. 1978. A new subspecies of Anolis baleatus (Sauria: Iguanidae) from Isla Saona, República Dominicana. Florida Scientist 40 (4):401-5. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • Schwartz, Albert 1974. An analysis of variation in the Hispaniolan giant anole, Anolis ricordi Duméril and Bibron. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 146 (2): 86-146 - get paper here
  • Van Beest, P. and Haberham, Z.L. 2003. Een gebruikaanwijzing voor één van de meest interssante groepen terrarumdieren: Anolissen Deel I. Lacerta 61 (2): 53-64 - get paper here
  • Van Beest, P.A. & Haberham, Z.L. 2003. Een gebruiksaanwijzing voor een van de meest interessante groepen terrariumdiern:Anolissen. Deel III. Lacerta 61 (5): 163-176 - get paper here
  • Vences, M. 2009. Lizard Radiations, in: Gillespie Clague, Encyclopedia of islands. University of California Press, pp. 558-563
  • Williams, E. E. 1962. Notes on Hispaniolan herpetology 6. The giant anoles. Breviora (155):1-15 - get paper here
 
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