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Anolis bicaorum (KÖHLER, 1996)

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymNorops bicaorum KÖHLER 1996
Norops bicaorum — KÖHLER 2000: 62
Norops bicaorum — NICHOLSON 2002
Norops bicaorum — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops bicaorum — MCCRANIE 2015 
DistributionHonduras (Islas de la Bahia/Utila/Roatán)

Type locality: Honduras, Islas de la Bahia, Isla de Utila, on the trail to Rock Harbour, about 3 km north of the town of Utila (16°6.34'N; 86°53.94'W). Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: SMF 77100 
CommentNorops bicaorum differs from its close relative, Norops lemurinus COPE 1861 by a much larger dewlap size, a different dewlap color, and more longitudinal rows of loreal scales.

Definition and diagnosis: A medium-sized (snout-vent length 75 mm in largest specimen), long-legged Norops, having transverse processes on some autotomous caudal vertebrae. The large dewlap of N. bicaorum is more or less double in size compared with that of N. lemurinus. Additionally, in N. bicaorum the skin of the dewlap is heavily dark pigmented (bright red without dark pigment in N. lemurinus) with oblique rows of white unpigmented scales (with dark pigmented scales in N. lemurinus). Thus the dewlap of N. bicaorum is blackish with a red margin and oblique rows of bright white scales in gross appearance, whereas the dewlap of N. lenturinus is bright red with oblique rows of darker scales. The dewlap of adult female N. bicaorum is only slightly indicated but the skin in that area is like that of males heavily dark pigmented with the scales being unpigmented (unpigmented skin with dark pigmented scales in throat/gular region in female N. lemurinus). Furthermore, N. bicaorum has more longitudinal rows of loreal scales (8-10; x = 8.9 vs, 5-8; x = 6.9) than N. lemurinus (Table 1).

From all other species of Norops except of lemurinus it differs by the combination of the following characters: (1) maximum snout-vent length 75 mm; (2) tail length/snout-vent length ratio 2.0-2.3; (3) longest toe of adpressed hind limb reaches mid-eye or beyond; (4) ventrals strongly keeled and larger than dorsals; (5) lateral scales homogenous; (6) 1-3 scales at narrowest point between supraorbital semicircles; (7) 2-5 scales between interparie-tal and supraorbital semicircles; (8) usually one scale separating suboculars from supralabials; (9) one scale between nasal and rostral; (10) 6-8 supralabials to below center of eye; (11) two median dorsal scale rows slightly enlarged; (12) no enlarged postanals; (13) body color brownish; (14) dewlap blackish with a red margin and oblique rows of bright white scales (from Köhler 1996).

Species group: Norops auratus Species Group (fide Nicholson et al. 2012) 
EtymologyNamed after the Bay Island Conservation Association (BICA) who are doing a great work for the protection of the wildlife and the resources of the Islas de la Bahia. 
References
  • Brown, T. W., D. F. Maryon, M. P. Van den Burg and G. Lonsdale. 2017. Distribution and natural history notes on Norops bicaorum (Squamata: Dactyloidae) endemic to Isla de Utila, Honduras. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(2): 493–497 - get paper here
  • Diener, E. 2008. Freilandbeobachtungen an einigen Saumfingerarten (Anolis sensu lato) in Honduras. Iguana Rundschreiben 21 (2): 10-19
  • Hallmen, S. 2011. Neues aus Utila - reloaded. Iguana Rundschreiben 24 (2): 5-16 - get paper here
  • Klutsch, CF; Misof, B; Grosse, WR; Moritz, RF 2007. Genetic and morphometric differentiation among island populations of two Norops lizards (Reptilia: Sauria: Polychrotidae) on independently colonized islands of the Islas de Bahia (Honduras). Journal of Biogeography 34 (7): 1124-1135
  • Köhler, G. 1996. Additions to the known herpetofauna of the Isla de Utila (Islas de la Bahia, Honduras) with description of a new species of the genus Norops (Reptilia: Iguanidae). Senckenbergiana biologica 76 (1/2): 19-28.
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Köhler, Gunther 1999. Eine neue Saumfingerart der Gattung Norops von der Pazifikseite des nördlichen Mittelamerika. Salamandra 35 (1): 37-52 - get paper here
  • Kramer, J. 2010. Utilas Anolis. Iguana Rundschreiben 23 (1): 5-9
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. and Gunther Köhler 2015. The Anoles (Reptilia: Squamata: Dactyloidae: Anolis: Norops) of Honduras. Systematics, Distribution, and Conservation. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard (Special Publication Series, No. 1): 1-280 [review in Q. J. Biol. 91: 227] - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K.E. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis and a test of the current infrageneric classification of Norops (beta Anolis). Herpetological Monographs 16: 93-120 - get paper here
  • Pachmann, A. 2013. Das Ende ist nah. Reptilia (Münster) 18 (100): 14-15 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Schlüter, U. 2001. Neuerungen in der Systematik der mittelamerikanischen Saumfinger der Gattung Norops seit 1996. Iguana Rundschreiben 14 (2): 19-28
  • Schulte, U. 2008. Der Saumfinger Norops bicaorum (KÖHLER, 1996) auf utila, honduras. Iguana Rundschreiben 20 (2): 11-15 [2007]
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Tiedemann,F. & Grillitsch,H. 1999. Ergänzungen zu den Katalogen der Typusexemplare der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien. Herpetozoa 12 (3-4): 147-156 - get paper here
  • Van Beest, P. and Hartman, M. 2003. De eerste kweek van Norops bicaorum. Lacerta 61 (1): 3-9 - get paper here
 
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