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Anolis chlorodius KÖHLER & HEDGES, 2016

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymAnolis chlorodius KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 33
Anolis coelestinus — COCHRAN 1941 (in part.)
Anolis coelestinus — WILLIAMS 1965 (in part.)
Anolis coelestinus — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975 (in part.)
Anolis coelestinus — SCHWARTZ 1980 (in part.)
Anolis coelestinus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988 (in part.)
Anolis coelestinus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991 (in part.)
Anolis coelestinus — POWELL et al. 1996 (in part.)
Anolis coelestinus — RAMOS & POWELL 2001b (in part.)
Anolis coelestinus — HENDERSON & POWELL 2009 (in part.) 
DistributionDominican Republic (SW Sierra de Bahoruco, Barahona Peninsula), Haiti (S Massif de la Selle)

Type locality: La Manigua (18.19045, -71.77075), 570 m elevation, Province Pedernales, Dominican Republic.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype. SMF 97853, an adult male; collected 29 October 2013 by Gunther Köhler and Eladio Fernández. Field tag number GK-4778.
Paratypes. All from Province Pedernales, Dominican Republic: GK-4777, SMF 97852, 97854– 55, same collecting data as holotype. SMF 99001, Pedernales, Hotel Doña Chava (18.03608, -71.74239), 20 m, collected 27 October 2013 by Gunther Köhler and Eladio Fernández. SMF 99002, Pedernales (18.03002, -71.74347), 10 m, collected 27 October 2013 by Gunther Köhler and Eladio Fernández. SMF 97856–57, Pedernales (18.03002, -71.74347), 10 m, collected 29 October 2013 by Gunther Köhler and Eladio Fernández. GK-4769, 4774, SMF 97848–51, 99000, Altagracia, north of Pedernales (18.18921, -71.72642), 760 m, collected 27 October 2013 by Gunther Köhler and Eladio Fernández. USNM 329046 (KJ566804, KJ566882) USNM 329047 (KJ566805, KJ566883), 14.5 km S Los Arroyos (18.14806, -71.74806), 760 m, collected 12 August 1983 by S. Blair Hedges and Richard Thomas. SMF 98136–37, USNM 558714 (KJ566845), USNM 558715, 18.2 km N Pedernales at stream (Los Arroyos border road) (18.15392, -71.74745), 200 m, collected 21 August 2005 by S. Blair Hedges, M. Heinicke, and N. Corona. KU 253043–44, Pedernales, collected 24 June 1964 by Richard Thomas. KU 253053–54, 17 km N Pedernales, collected 29 June 1964 by D. C. Leber. MCZ R-143382, 25 km N Cabo Rojo on Alcoa Mine road (18.09780, -71.64280), 900 m, collected 7 July 1974 by Paul E. Hertz and Raymond B. Huey. 
CommentSimilar species: Anolis coelestinus, A. viridius.

Distribution: see map in KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 22 (Fig. 10).

Conservation. Given its broad distribution and local abundance, we consider the conservation status of Anolis chlorodius to be Least Concern based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (IUCN, 2012).

Diagnosis. A moderate-sized to moderately large species of Anolis that differs from all other Hispaniolan congeners except A. coelestinus, A. demissus, and A. pecuarius and a species described below by the combination of having (1) predominantly green overall coloration in life (capable of rapid color change to brown); (2) a white subocular stripe that continues as a white streak onto lateral neck (3) hind legs relatively short (fourth toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to ear opening or only slightly beyond ear opening); (4) ventral scales at midbody usually perfectly smooth; (5) 39–47 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; (6) male dewlap yellowish green or brown (after metachrosis) in life with longitudinal or oblique double rows of gorgetal scales; (7) ratio tail length / SVL >1.7, usually >2.0. Among the Anolis species occuring treated in this contribution, A. chlorodius is most similar to A. coelestinus, A. demissus, A. pecuarius, and a species described below. Anolis chlorodius differs from A. coelestinus and A. pecuarius by having usually perfectly smooth, rarely faintly keeled ventral scales at midbody (vs. usually distinctly keeled). Anolis chlorodius differs from A. demissus and A. pecuarius by (1) usually having a white subocular stripe and a white streak on lateral neck and shoulder (vs. such a pattern usually not present in A. demissus and A. pecuarius); a bluish green to yellowish green male dewlap in life (vs. yellowish brown, dark gray, or greenish gray in A. demissus and A. pecuarius); and (3) by usually having a pattern of white to pale green vertical bars or blotches on flanks (vs. usually lacking any pattern on flanks in A. demissus and A. pecuarius). Anolis chlorodius differs from A. chlorocyanus, A. cyanostictus, and A. peynadoi by having (1) a yellowish green or brown (after metachrosis) in life dewlap with longitudinal or oblique double rows of gorgetal scales (vs. dewlap bicolored with a darker posterior portion and with regularly spaced more or less homogeneous gorgetal scales); (2) and a blue iris in life (vs. brown to reddish brown). Anolis chlorodius differs further from A. cyanostictus (1) by having a distinct white subocular stripe that continues as a white streak onto lateral neck (vs. no such stripe and streak in A. cyanostictus) and (2) by the lack of pale brown blotches above and anterior to shoulder as well as immediately posterior to eye (vs. such blotches present in A. cyanostictus). Anolis chlorodius differs from A. aliniger and A. singularis by (1) having a longer tail with a ratio tail length / SVL >1.7, usually >2.0 (vs. <1.7); (2) a distinct white subocular stripe that continues as a white streak onto lateral neck (vs. no such stripe and streak); (3) usually >38 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; and (4) no conspicuously dark colored distal portion of tail in front of pale colored tail tip (vs. such a tail color pattern present, most obvious in life). For differences between A. chlorodius and the species described below, see the respective accounts of the new species. 
EtymologyThe name chlorodius is a noun in apposition derived from chloros (Greek for “green”). 
References
  • Cochran, D.M. 1941. The herpetology of Hispaniola. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 177: vii + 398 pp. - get paper here
  • Köhler, Gunther and S. Blair Hedges 2016. A revision of the green anoles of Hispaniola with description of eight new species (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) NOVITATES CARIBAEA 9: 1-135 - get paper here
  • Kwet, Axel 2017. Neue Arten: Liste der im Jahr 2016 neu beschriebenen Reptilien Terraria-Elaphe (3): 54-70 - get paper here
  • Powell, R., R. W. Henderson, K. Adler, And H. A. Dundee. 1996. An annotated checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. In R. Powell and R. W. Henderson (eds.), Contributions to West Indian Herpetology: A Tribute to Albert Schwartz, p.51-93. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca (New York). Contributions to Herpetology, volume 12.
  • Ramos, Yanerys M. and Robert Powell 2001. Anolis coelestinus Cope. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (729): 1-5 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. 1980. The herpetogeography of Hispaniola, West Indies. Stud. on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands 61: 86-127. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and R. Thomas. 1975. A checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ. 1:1-216.
  • Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1988. West Indian Amphibian and Reptiles: A Checklist. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contr. Biol. Geol. No. 74: 264 pp.
  • Williams, E. E. 1965. The species of Hispaniolan green anoles (Sauria, Iguanidae). Breviora (227): 1-16. - get paper here
 
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