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Anolis coelestinus COPE, 1862

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesHispaniolan green anole, Jeremie Anole 
SynonymAnolis (Ctenocercus) coelestinus COPE 1862: 177
Anolis bullaris — GRAY 1845 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus — BOULENGER 1885 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus — BARBOUR 1914 (in part.)
Anolis latirostris SCHMIDT 1919 (fide THOMAS 1966)
Anolis coelestinus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 238
Anolis coelestinus — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Ameiva coelestinus — GEIßLER 2008 (in error)
Deiroptyx coelestina — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Deiroptyx coelestina coelestina — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Ameiva coelestinus — KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016 
DistributionHispaniola (S Haiti: W Tiburón Peninsula)

Type locality: Near Jérémie, Département de la Grand'Anse, Haiti. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
ReproductionGarcia et al. (1994) documented hybridization between A. chlorocyanus and A. coelestinus. 
TypesLectotype: MCZ 3347; others unlocated
Holotype: AMNH 12598, Navassa Island (in error) [latirostris] 
CommentSynonymy: mostly after KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 18.

Similar species: Anolis coelestinus, A. viridius, A. chlorodius, A. demissus, A. pecuarius.

Subspecies: Anolis coelestinus demissus SCHWARTZ 1969 and Anolis coelestinus pecuarius SCHWARTZ 1969 have been elevated to full species status by KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016. Other populations of coelestinus have been described as new species, A. viridius and A. chlorodius.

Illustrations: Schmidt, 1921 (as Anolis latirostris); Cochran, 1941; Williams, 1965; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985.

Distribution: see map in KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 22 (Fig. 10).

Species group: Deiroptyx chlorocyana species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012).

Diagnosis. A moderate-sized to moderately large species of Anolis that differs from all other Hispaniolan congeners except A. demissus and A. pecuarius and two species described below by the combination of having (1) predominantly green overall coloration in life (capable of rapid color change to brown); (2) a white subocular stripe that continues as a white streak onto lateral neck (3) hind legs relatively short (fourth toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to ear opening or only slightly beyond ear opening); (4) ventral scales at midbody usually faintly to distinctly keeled; (5) 39–47 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; (6) male dewlap yellowish green or brown (after metachrosis) in life with longitudinal or oblique double rows of gorgetal scales; (7) ratio tail length / SVL >1.7, usually >2.0. Among the Anolis species treated in this contribution, A. coelestinus is most similar to A. demissus, A. pecuarius, and two species described below. Anolis coelestinus differs from A. demissus and A. pecuarius by (1) usually having a white subocular stripe and a white streak on lateral neck and shoulder (vs. such a pattern usually not present in A. demissus and A. pecuarius); a bluish green to yellowish green male dewlap in life (vs. yellowish brown, dark gray, or greenish gray in A. demissus and A. pecuarius); and (3) by usually having a pattern of white to pale green vertical bars or blotches on flanks (vs. usually lacking any pattern on flanks in A. demissus and A. pecuarius). Anolis coelestinus further differs from A. demissus by usually having 4 supracaudals per caudal segment, either throughout all discernable segments or having the reduction from 5 to 4 supracaudals per segment before the 5th segment (vs. 5 supracaudals per caudal segment throughout all discernable segments in A. demissus) and by usually having weakly to distinctly keeled ventral scales (vs. usually smooth in A. demissus). Anolis coelestinus differs from A. chlorocyanus, A. cyanostictus, and A. peynadoi by having (1) a yellowish green or brown (after metachrosis) in life dewlap with longitudinal or oblique double rows of gorgetal scales (vs. dewlap bicolored with a darker posterior portion and with regularly spaced more or less homogeneous gorgetal scales); (2) and a blue iris in life (vs. brown to reddish brown). Anolis coelestinus differs further from A. cyanostictus (1) by having a distinct white subocular stripe that continues as a white streak onto lateral neck (vs. no such stripe and streak in A. cyanostictus) and (2) by the lack of pale brown blotches above and anterior to shoulder as well as immediately posterior to eye (vs. such blotches present in A. cyanostictus). Anolis coelestinus differs from A. aliniger and A. singularis by (1) having a longer tail with a ratio tail length / SVL >1.7, usually >2.0 (vs. <1.7); (2) a distinct white subocular stripe that continues as a white streak onto lateral neck (vs. no such stripe and streak); (3) usually >38 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; and (4) no conspicuously dark colored distal portion of tail in front of pale colored tail tip (vs. such a tail color pattern present, most obvious in life). For differences between A. coelestinus and the species described below, see the respective accounts of the new species [KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 18]. 
References
  • Cochran, D.M. 1941. The herpetology of Hispaniola. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 177: vii + 398 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1863. Contributions to Neotropical saurology. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14 [1862]: 176-188. - get paper here
  • Garcia R. Queral A. Powell R. Parmerlee J S Jr. Smith D D. Lathrop A. 1994. Evidence of hybridization among green anoles (Lacertilia: Polychrotidae) from Hispaniola. Carib. J. Sci. 30 (3-4): 279- 281.
  • Geißler, L. 2008. Herpetologische Beobachtungen auf der Halbinsel Barahona, Dominikanische Republik. Elaphe 16 (1): 48-52
  • Hedges SB. 2010. Anolis coelestinus (Southern Green Anole). Distribution. Caribbean Herpetology 7: 1 - get paper here
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER 2014. Characters of external morphology used in Anolis taxonomy—Definition of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples. Zootaxa 3774 (2): 201–257 - get paper here
  • Köhler, Gunther and S. Blair Hedges 2016. A revision of the green anoles of Hispaniola with description of eight new species (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) NOVITATES CARIBAEA 9: 1-135 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1939. Herpetologische Ergebnisse einer Reise nach der Insel Hispaniola, Westindien. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) 449: 1-84.
  • Nicholson, K. E., R. E. Glor, J. J. Kolbe, A. Larson, S. B. Hedges, and J. B. Losos 2005. Mainland colonization by island lizards. Journal of Biogeography 32: 929–938 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Ramos, Yanerys M. and Robert Powell 2001. Anolis coelestinus Cope. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (729): 1-5 - get paper here
  • Rovatsos, Michail; Marie Altmanová, Martina Pokorná and Lukáš Kratochvíl 2014. CONSERVED SEX CHROMOSOMES ACROSS ADAPTIVELY RADIATED ANOLIS LIZARDS. Evolution, DOI: 10.1111/evo.12357 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K. P. 1919. Descriptions of new amphibians and reptiles from Santo Domingo and Navassa. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 41:519-525.
  • Schmidt, K.P. 1921. The herpetology of Navassa Island. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 44(18): 555-559
  • Schwartz, A. 1969. A review of the Hispaniolan lizard Anolis coelestinus Cope. Carib. J. Sci. 9 (1-2): 33-38.
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • SIFERS,SUSAN M.; MELISSA L. YESKA; YANERYS M. RAMOS ROBERT POWELL AND JOHN S. PARMERLEE, JR. 2001. Anolis Lizards Restricted to Altered Edge Habitats in a Hispaniolan Cloud Forest. Carib. J. Sci. 37 (1-2): 55-62
  • Thomas, R. 1966. A reassessment of the Virgin Islands Typhlops with the description of two new subspecies. Revista de Biologia Tropical 13:187-201 [1965] - get paper here
  • Vences, M. 2009. Lizard Radiations, in: Gillespie Clague, Encyclopedia of islands. University of California Press, pp. 558-563
  • Williams, E. E. 1965. The species of Hispaniolan green anoles (Sauria, Iguanidae). Breviora (227): 1-16. - get paper here
 
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