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Anolis conspersus GARMAN, 1887

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesAnolis conspersus conspersus GARMAN 1887
Anolis conspersus lewisi GRANT 1940 
Common NamesE: Cayman Islands Blue-fanned Anole, Grand Cayman blue-fanned anole, Grand Cayman Anole 
SynonymAnolis conspersus GARMAN 1887: 273
Anolis utowanae BARBOUR 1932
Anolis conspersus conspersus — GRANT 1941: 21
Anolis utowanae — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 62
Anolis utowanae — HARDY 1969: 116
Anolis conspersus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 240
Norops utowanae — LINER 1994
Norops utowanae — NICHOLSON 2002
Norops conspersus — NICHOLSON 2002
Anolis utowanae — LINER 2007
Norops utowanae — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops conspersus conspersus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops conspersus conspersus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis conspersus lewisi GRANT 1941: 23
Anolis grahami lewisi — BARBOUR & LOVERIDGE 1946
Anolis conspersus lewisi — PAGODA 2011
Norops conspersus lewisi — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops conspersus lewisi — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionCayman I

conspersus Grand Cayman I., western half; Booby Cay. Type locality: Grand Cayman Island, Cayman Islands.

lewisi: Grand Cayman I., eastern half, typical individuals along northeastern coast.

utowanae: Mexico (coastal Sinaloa); Type locality: ten miles north of Mazatlán, Sinaloa (probably in error).  
TypesSyntypes: UMMZ 63089 (2), USNM 39292
Syntype: ANSP 23009; West Indies, Grand Cayman.
Holotype: MCZ 45106 [lewisi]
Holotype: MCZ 31035 [utowanae] 
DiagnosisOriginal description (GARMAN 1887): Head large, about one and three.fourths times as long as broad, longer than the tibia. Forehead concave. Frontal ridges low. Occiput concave. Scales on the sides and top of the head with low blunt keels.
Scales of the supraorbital semicircles enlarged, separated mesially by a single series of scales. Ten to fifteen enlarged keeled supraocular scales, the largest of which is separated from the supraorbitals by a single series of granules. occipital small, about the size of the ear-opening, separated froin the supraorbitals by three or four series of scales. Cantlius rostralis sharp, prominent; canthal scales four. Loreal rows five. Six labials to below the centre of the eye. Ear-opening small, vertical diameter much the greater. Gular appendage rather large, the fold reaching as far backward as the axil, less developed in the female. Gular scales flat, with faint indication of an obtuse keel. Body not compressed; a slight nuchal fold in the male; no dorsal fold, Dorsal scales small, granular, smooth orobtusely keeled, a little larger in several of the vertebral rows; ventral scales larger. Limbs moderate; the adpressed hind leg reaches the orbit; digital expansions moderate; lamellze under phalanges ii and iii of the fourth toe twenty-four. Tail twice as long as head and body, compressed, less in fenlale, edged above with a series of strongly keeled scales. JIale with enlarged postanal scales.
Adults yellowish-green to olivaceous, thickly sprinkled with small spots of light color, reddish or brownish in life; tail more uniform; belly bluish, presenting a clouded appearance toward flanks and chin. Goitre blue or purple.
Very young ones are light ashy or grayish on the back, white beneath; somewhat clouded with darker on flanks, limbs, chin and throat. The light spots or freckles first appear on the top and sides of the head, thence gradually spreading backward. Above the pelvis on the back there is a band of light color mliich narrowing backward extends to the middle of the tail, where it fades. On one specimen there is a small darli blotch at each side of the pelvic band; on the middle of tlle body there is a small transverse hour glass-shaped blotch with a smaller rounded spot of white at each side of it on the mesial line; it has a similar mark above the axils, and a dark spot on the occipital shield. On many individuals, old ancl young, the forehead ancl cheeks are brown. This species is closely allied to A. grahamiae accepted by Dr. Boulenger, whose form of description we have followed, more or less nearly, to facilitate comparisons. A. conspersus has a much smaller occipital scale, its canthal and frontal ridges are sharper, it has a single series between the supraorbitals on the crown; it has not the lilac color on tail and limbs, and its goitre is dark blue or purple, instead of crimson with yellow or white margin.

See also: Grant 1941: 21

Diagnosis (lewisi). “Snout normal, but without keeled scales; dorsal granules large with minute interstitial granules on shoulders.” (Grant 1941)

Detailed description (lewisi): of type, variation, color pattern etc.: Grant 1941. 
CommentSpecies group: Norops valencienni species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012).

For illustrations see Schwartz and Henderson, 1985.

Synonymy: POE 2014 synonymized A. utowanae with A. conspersus. The holotype and single specimen of A. utowanae appears to have been part of a series collected by Barbour on Grand Cayman during his 1931 trip from Miami to the Panama Canal and then North to Pacific Mexico, including Mazatlán, on the yacht named Utowana. How the specimen came to be associated with Mazatlán remains a mystery.

Conservation: the IUCN (ID: 64218) has assessed A. utowanae but not conspersus. 
  • Augustine, Lauren A.; Cristina Macklem, Avishai Shuter, Kevin Torregrosa 2021. Opportunistically collected UV exposure data for some lizards in Cuba and Grand Cayman. Herpetology Notes 14: 681-690 - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas 1932. On a new Anolis from Western Mexico. Copeia 1932 (1): 11-12 - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas & Loveridge, Arthur 1946. First supplement to typical reptiles and amphibians. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 96 (2): 59-214. - get paper here
  • Ezaz, T. et al. 2009. Sex Chromosome Evolution in Lizards: Independent Origins and Rapid Transitions. Cytogenet Genome Res 127: 249-260 - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1887. On the reptiles and batrachians of Grand Cayman. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 273-277 - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Grant, C. 1941. The herpetology of the Cayman Islands. Bulletin of the Institute of Jamaica, Science Series [1940] (2):1-56
  • Hardy, L.M., & McDiarmid, R.W. 1969. The amphibians and reptiles of Sinaloa, Mexico. Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 18 (3): 39-252. - get paper here
  • Jackman, Tod R.; Irschick, Duncan J.; de Queiroz, Kevin; Losos, Jonathan; Larson, Allan 2002. Molecular Phylogenetic Perspective on Evolution of Lizards of the Anolis grahami Series. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol. 294 (1):1-16 - get paper here
  • Losos, J. B. 2009. Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • MACEDONIA, J. M., CLARK, D. L., & FONLEY, M. R. 2021. Analysis of Bobbing Displays in the Grahami Series Anoles from Jamaica and Grand Cayman. Herpetological Monographs, 35, 000-000 - get paper here
  • Macedonia, J.M. & D.L. Clark 2001. Headbob Display Analysis of the Grand Cayman Anole, Anolis conspersus Journal of Herpetology 35 (2): 300-310. - get paper here
  • Macedonia, J.M., S. James, L.W. Wittle & D.L. Clark 2000. Skin Pigments and Coloration in the Jamaican Radiation of Anolis Lizards Journal of Herpetology 34 (1): 99-109. - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K.E. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis and a test of the current infrageneric classification of Norops (beta Anolis). Herpetological Monographs 16: 93-120 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Pagoda, P. 2011. Ein Monat als Volontär in der Karibik - der Blauen wegen. Elaphe 19 (1): 65-72
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2014. The Travels of Thomas Barbour on the Ship Utowana in 1931 and the Taxonomic Status of Anolis utowanae. Breviora (538): 1-9 - get paper here
  • Schoener, Thomas W. 1967. The ecological significnce of sexual dimorphism in size in the lizard Anolis conspersus. Science 155 (3761): 474-477 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • Webb, R.G. 1984. Herpetogeography in the Mazatlán-Durango Region of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. Vetrebrate Ecology and Systematics - A ribute to Henry S. Fitch; Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, pp. 217-241
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