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Anolis cyanostictus MERTENS, 1939

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymAnolis chlorocyanus cyanostictus MERTENS 1939
Anolis chloro-cyanus — BARBOUR 1930 (in part.)
Anolis chloro-cyanus — BARBOUR 1935 (in part.)
Anolis chloro-cyanus — BARBOUR 1937 (in part.)
Anolis chloro-cyanus — COCHRAN 1941 (in part.).
Anolis chlorocyanus — WILLIAMS 1965 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus cyanostictus — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus — SCHWARTZ 1980 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus cyanostictus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Anolis chlorocyanus cyanostictus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991
Anolis chlorocyanus — POWELL et al. 1996 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus cyanostictus — RAMOS & POWELL 2001
Anolis chlorocyanus cyanostictus — HENDERSON & POWELL 2009
Anolis cyanostictus — KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 60 
DistributionDominican Republic (Santo Domingo and nearby towns), elevation 0-100 m

Type locality: “Zwischen Fortaleza und der Mündung des Rio Jaina”, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: SMF 26290 
CommentConservation. We do not have evidence that the species is threatened or declining within its range. However, given the small range size and the fact that it occurs in a populated area suggests that it may be threated by encroaching urban areas. For this reason, KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016 consider the conservation status of Anolis cyanostictus to be Near Threatened based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (IUCN, 2012).

Diagnosis. A moderate-sized to moderately large species of Anolis that differs from all other Hispaniolan congeners except a species described below (i.e., our Species D of this species complex) by the combination of having (1) predominantly green overall coloration in life (capable of rapid color change to brown); (2) no white subocular stripe and no white streak onto lateral neck (3) relatively short hind legs (fourth toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to ear opening or only slightly beyond ear opening); (4) the ventral scales at midbody weakly keeled; (5) 39–47 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; (6) male dewlap with large and irregularly arranged gorgetals, especially on posterior portion of dewlap. Among the Anolis species treated in this contribution, A. cyanostictus is most similar to A. cholorcyanus, A. peynadoi, and a species described below (i.e., our Species D of this complex). Anolis cyanostictus differs from A. chlorocyanus and A. peynadoi by (1) the absence of suffusion of black pigment on posterior portion of the male dewlap (vs. the posterior portion of the male dewlap heavily suffused with black in A. chlorocyanus and A. peynadoi); and (2) by having pale brown blotches above and anterior to shoulder as well as immediately posterior to eye (vs. such blotches absent in A. chlorocyanus and A. peynadoi); and (3) weakly keeled ventrals at midventer (vs. smooth in A. chlorocyanus and A. peynadoi). Anolis cyanostictus differs from the species related to A. coelestinus by having (1) a bicolored dewlap with a darker posterior portion and with regularly spaced more or less homogeneous gorgetal scales (vs. dewlap yellowish green or brown in life dewlap with longitudinal or oblique double rows of gorgetal scales); (2) 13–30, usually <28 loreal scales in a maximum of 3–5 rows (vs. 18–60, usually >28 loreal scales in a maximum of 3–7 rows); and (3) a brown to reddish brown iris in life (vs. a blue iris). Anolis cyanostictus differs from the species related to A. aliniger and A. singularis by (1) having a longer tail with a ratio tail length / SVL >1.7, usually >2.0 (vs. <1.7); (2) a distinct white subocular stripe that continues as a white streak onto lateral neck (vs. no such stripe and streak); (3) usually >38 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; and (4) no conspicuously dark colored distal portion of tail in front of pale colored tail tip (vs. such a tail color pattern present, most obvious in life). For differences between A. cyanostictus and the species described below, see account of the new species [KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 60]. 
References
  • Barbour, T. 1935. A second list of Antillean reptiles and amphibians. Zoologica 19 (3): 77-141
  • Barbour, Thomas 1930. A list of Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians. Zoologica 11 (4): 61-116
  • Barbour,T. 1937. Third list of Antillean reptiles and amphibians. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 82 (2): 77-166 - get paper here
  • Cochran, D.M. 1941. The herpetology of Hispaniola. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 177: vii + 398 pp. - get paper here
  • Henderson, Robert W. & Robert Powell 2009. NATURAL HISTORY OF WEST INDIAN REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS. University Press of Florida, 576 pp.
  • Köhler, Gunther and S. Blair Hedges 2016. A revision of the green anoles of Hispaniola with description of eight new species (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) NOVITATES CARIBAEA 9: 1-135 - get paper here
  • Kwet, Axel 2017. Neue Arten: Liste der im Jahr 2016 neu beschriebenen Reptilien Terraria-Elaphe (3): 54-70 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1939. Herpetologische Ergebnisse einer Reise nach der Insel Hispaniola, Westindien. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) 449: 1-84.
  • Powell, R., R. W. Henderson, K. Adler, And H. A. Dundee. 1996. An annotated checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. In R. Powell and R. W. Henderson (eds.), Contributions to West Indian Herpetology: A Tribute to Albert Schwartz, p.51-93. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca (New York). Contributions to Herpetology, volume 12.
  • Ramos, Yanerys M. and Robert Powell. 2001. Anolis chlorocyanus Duméril and Bibron. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (728): 1-6 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. 1980. The herpetogeography of Hispaniola, West Indies. Stud. on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands 61: 86-127. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and R. Thomas. 1975. A checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ. 1:1-216.
  • Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1988. West Indian Amphibian and Reptiles: A Checklist. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contr. Biol. Geol. No. 74: 264 pp.
  • Williams, E. E. 1965. The species of Hispaniolan green anoles (Sauria, Iguanidae). Breviora (227): 1-16. - get paper here
 
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