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Anolis cybotes COPE, 1862

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesAnolis cybotes cybotes COPE 1862
Anolis cybotes doris BARBOUR 1925
Anolis cybotes ravifaux SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1982 
Common NamesHispaniolan stout anole, Large-headed anole 
SynonymAnolis (Anolis) cybotes COPE 1862: 177
Anolis riisei REINHARDT & LÜTKEN 1863: 264
Anolis citrinellus COPE 1864
Anolis cybotes — BOULENGER 1885: 34
Anolis citrinellus — BOULENGER 1885: 35
? Anolis saxatilis MERTENS 1938
Anolis cybotes cybotes — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 93
Anolis cybotes — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 248
Anolis cybotes — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Audantia cybotes — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis cybotes cybotes COPE 1862
Audantia cybotes cybotes — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis cybotes doris BARBOUR 1925
Anolis doris BARBOUR 1925
Ctenonotus cybotes doris — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Audantia cybotes doris — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis cybotes ravifaux SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1982
Audantia cybotes ravifaux — NICHOLSON et al. 2012 
DistributionHispaniola: Haiti, Dominican Republic, Ile Grande Cayemite, Ile de la Tortue,
Ile a Vache, Ile a Cabrit, Ile de la Gonave, Isla Saona Isla Catalina,
Isla Catalinita;
Suriname (introduced),
USA (introduced to S Florida)

cybotes: throughout Hispaniola, including satellite islands except Île de la Gonâve, Isla Saona. Type locality: Haiti, near Jeremie

doris: Île de la Gonâve.

ravifaux: Isla Saona, and (questionably) Isla Catalinita.

Type locality: Haiti [Anolis riisei]
Type locality: Santo Domingo [Anolis citrinellus] Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: ANSP 7604-05, MCZ 3619, MCZ 14346-47.
Holotype: ZMUC [riisei]
Holotype: MCZ 13739 [doris]
Holotype: MCZ 156221 [ravifaux] 
CommentFor illustrations see Boulenger, 1885; Noble, 1923; Klingel, 1929; Mertens, 1939; Cochran, 1941; Williams, 1963; Williams, 1975.

Karyotype: 2n=36, XY (males) or XX (females) (Giovannotti et al. 2016) 
References
  • Asa E. Conover, Ellee G. Cook, Katherine E. Boronow, and Martha M. Muñoz 2015. Effects of Ectoparasitism on Behavioral Thermoregulation in the Tropical lizards Anolis cybotes (Squamata: Dactyloidae) and Anolis armouri (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Breviora 545 (1): 1-13. - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas 1925. New Neotropical lizards. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 38: 101-102 - get paper here
  • Boistel, Renaud;, Anthony Herrel; Renaud Lebrun, Gheylen Daghfous, Paul Tafforeau, Jonathan B. Lososô and Bieke Vanhooydonck|| 2011. Shake Rattle and Roll: The Bony Labyrinth and Aerial Descent in Squamates. Integrative and Comparative Biology, doi:10.1093/icb/icr034
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Butterfield, Brian P.;Meshaka, Walter E., Jr.;Kilhefner, Roger L. 1994. Two anoles new to Broward County, Florida. Herpetological Review 25 (2): 77-78 - get paper here
  • Cochran, D.M. 1941. The herpetology of Hispaniola. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 177: vii + 398 pp. - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cope, E.D. 1863. Contributions to Neotropical saurology. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14 [1862]: 176-188. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1864. Contributions to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 16: 166-181. - get paper here
  • Fobes, T. M., J. S. Parmedee, Jr., and R. Powell. 1993. Anolis cybotes. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 564. - get paper here
  • Gavrilets, S. & Losos, J.B. 2009. Adaptive radiation: contrasting theory with data. Science 323: 732-737
  • Geißler, L. 2008. Herpetologische Beobachtungen auf der Halbinsel Barahona, Dominikanische Republik. Elaphe 16 (1): 48-52
  • Gibbons, Whit; Judy Greene, and Tony Mills 2009. LIZARDS AND CROCODILIANS OF THE SOUTHEAST. University of Georgia Press, 240 pp.
  • Giovannotti, M.; & V. A. Trifonov, & A. Paoletti & I. G. Kichigin & P. C. M. O’Brien & F. Kasai & G. Giovagnoli & B. L. Ng & P. Ruggeri & P. Nisi Cerioni & A. Splendiani & J. C. Pereira, & E. Olmo & W. Rens & V. Caputo Barucchi, & M. A. Ferguson-Smit 2016. New insights into sex chromosome evolution in anole lizards (Reptilia, Dactyloidae) Chromosoma, DOI 10.1007/s00412-016-0585-6 - get paper here
  • Glor, Richard E., Robert Powell 1999. Phylogenetic Systematics of cybotes Group Anoles from Hispaniola. Anolis Newsletter V: 42-44
  • Helmus, Matthew R.; Jocelyn E. Behm, Wendy A.M. Jesse, Jason J. Kolbe,Jacintha Ellers, and Jonathan B. Losos 2016. EXOTICS EXHIBIT MORE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY THAN NATIVES: A COMPARISON OF THE ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION OF EXOTIC AND NATIVE ANOLE LIZARDS. In: Invasion Genetics: The Baker and Stebbins Legacy, First Edition. Edited by Spencer C. H. Barrett, Robert I. Colautti, Katrina M. Dlugosch, and Loren H. Rieseberg; John Wiley & Sons, pp. 122-138 (publication year given as 2017 in the book) - get paper here
  • Klaczko, J.; T. Ingram and J. Losos 2015. Genitals evolve faster than other traits in Anolis lizards. Journal of Zoology 295 (1): 44–48 - get paper here
  • Klingel,G.C. 1929. Lizard hunting in the Black Republic. Nat. Hist. 29(5):451-64.
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER 2014. Characters of external morphology used in Anolis taxonomy—Definition of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples. Zootaxa 3774 (2): 201–257 - get paper here
  • Kolbe, J.J.; Richard E. GLOR, LOURDES RODRIGUEZ SCHETTINO,<br />ADA CHAMIZO LARA, ALLAN LARSON AND JONATHAN B. LOSOS 2007. Multiple Sources, Admixture, and Genetic Variation in Introduced Anolis Lizard Populations. Conservation Biology 21 (6): 1612–1625 - get paper here
  • Losos, J. B. 2009. Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 528 pp.
  • Losos, J.B. 1985. Male aggressive behavior in a pair of sympatric sibling species. Breviora (484): 1-30 - get paper here
  • Losos, J.B. 2007. Detective Work in the West Indies: Integrating Historical and Experimental Approaches to Study Island Lizard Evolution. BioScience 57 (7): 585-597
  • Losos, J.B. & Schneider, C.J. 2009. Anolis lizards. Current Biology 19 (8): R316-R318
  • Mertens, R. 1939. Herpetologische Ergebnisse einer Reise nach der Insel Hispaniola, Westindien. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) 449: 1-84.
  • Meshaka Jr., Walter E. 2011. A RUNAWAY TRAIN IN THE MAKING: THE EXOTIC AMPHIBIANS, REPTILES, TURTLES, AND CROCODILIANS OF FLORIDA. Herp. Cons. Biol. 6 (Monograph 1): 1-101 - get paper here
  • Muñoz, Martha M.; Johanna E. Wegener and Adam C. Algar 2014. Untangling Intra- and Interspecific Effects on Body Size Clines Reveals Divergent Processes Structuring Convergent Patterns in Anolis Lizards. The American Naturalist 184 (5), DOI: 10.1086/678084 - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K. E., R. E. Glor, J. J. Kolbe, A. Larson, S. B. Hedges, and J. B. Losos 2005. Mainland colonization by island lizards. Journal of Biogeography 32: 929–938 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108
  • Noble, G.K. 1923. In pursuit of the giant tree frog. Nat. Hist. 23(2):105-16.
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Queiroz, Kevin de; Ling-Ru Chu, and Jonathan B. Losos 1998. A Second Anolis Lizard in Dominica Amber and the Systematics and Ecological Morphology of Dominican Amber Anoles. American Museum Novitates 3249: 23 pp. - get paper here
  • Rand, A. Stanley 1962. Notes on Hispaniolan herpetology 5. the natural history of three sympatric species of Anolis. Breviora (154): 1-15 - get paper here
  • Reinhardt, JOHANNES & CHRISTIAN FREDERIK LÜTKEN 1862. Bidrag tii det vestindiske Öriges og navnligen tii de dansk-vestindiske Oers Herpetologie. Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. For. Kjöbenhavn (10-18): 153-291 [1862] - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, Albert;Henderson, Robert W. 1982. Anolis cybotes (Reptilia, Iguanidae): the Eastern Hispaniolan populations. Milwaukee Public Museum Contributions in Biology and Geology (49): 1-8
  • Schwartz,A. 1989. A review of the Cybotoid Anoles (Reptilia: Sauria: Iguanidae) from Hispaniola. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contr. Biol. Geol. 78: 1-32
  • Sherratt, Emma; María del Rosario Castañeda, Russell J. Garwood, D. Luke Mahler, Thomas J. Sanger, Anthony Herrel, Kevin de Queiroz, and Jonathan B. Losos 2015. Amber fossils demonstrate deep-time stability of Caribbean lizard communities. PNAS 112 (32), doi: 10.1073/pnas.1506516112<br /> - get paper here
  • SIFERS,SUSAN M.; MELISSA L. YESKA; YANERYS M. RAMOS ROBERT POWELL AND JOHN S. PARMERLEE, JR. 2001. Anolis Lizards Restricted to Altered Edge Habitats in a Hispaniolan Cloud Forest. Carib. J. Sci. 37 (1-2): 55-62
  • Van Beest, P. and Haberham, Z.L. 2003. Een gebruikaanwijzing voor één van de meest interssante groepen terrarumdieren: Anolissen Deel I. Lacerta 61 (2): 53-64 - get paper here
  • Williams, E. E. 1963. Anolis whitemani, new species from Hispaniola (Sauria, Iguanidae). Breviora (197): 1-8 - get paper here
  • Williams, E. E. 1975. Anolis marcanoi new species: sibling to Anolis cybotes: description and field evidence. Breviora (430):1-9. - get paper here
  • Wollenberg, Katharina C.; Ian J. Wang, Richard E. Glor, Jonathan B. Losos 2013. DETERMINISM IN THE DIVERSIFICATION OF HISPANIOLAN TRUNK-GROUND ANOLES (ANOLIS CYBOTES SPECIES COMPLEX). Evolution, doi: 10.1111/evo.12184 - get paper here
  • Wyles, J. S.;Gorman, G. C. 1980. The classification of Anolis: conflict between genetic and osteological interpretation as exemplified by Anolis cybotes. Journal of Herpetology 14 (2): 149-153 - get paper here
 
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