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Anolis cybotes COPE, 1862

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesTiburon Stout Anole, Hispaniolan stout anole, Large-headed anole 
SynonymAnolis (Anolis) cybotes COPE 1862: 177
Anolis riisei REINHARDT & LÜTKEN 1863: 264
Anolis cybotes — BOULENGER 1885: 34
Anolis haetianus GARMAN 1887: 42
Anolis cybotes cybotes — MERTENS 1938
Anolis cybotes haetianus — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975
Anolis cybotes haetianus — MACLEAN et al. 1977
Anolis cybotes haetianus — HENDERSON & SCHWARTZ, 1984
Anolis cybotes haetianus — HENDERSON et al., 1984
Anolis cybotes cybotes — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 93
Anolis cybotes — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 248
Anolis haetianus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 274
Anolis haetianus — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Anolis cybotes — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Audantia cybotes — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Audantia haetianus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Audantia cybotes cybotes — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Audantia cybotes cybotes — NICHOLSON et al. 2018
Audantia haetiana — NICHOLSON et al. 2018
Audantia cybotes — NICHOLSON et al. 2018
Audantia cybotes — KÖHLER et al. 2019: 32 
DistributionHispaniola: Haiti (Tiburón Peninsula)

Type locality: Haiti, near Jeremie

haetianus: Hispaniola (Haiti: W Tiburon); Type locality: Tiburon, Département du Sud, Haiti.

Type locality: Haiti [Anolis riisei]  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesLectotype: MCZ 14346; paralectotypes (former syntypes): ANSP 7604-05, MCZ 3619, MCZ 14347.
Lectotype: ZMUC R3796, given as NHMD R3796 by Köhler et al. 2019 [riisei]
Holotype: MCZ 13739 [doris]
Holotype: MCZ 156221 [ravifaux]
Syntypes: MCZ 6191 [haetianus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A species of the genus Audantia that differs from all congeners by the combination of having (1) usually keeled ventral scales; (2) male dewlap dirty white without yellowish or orange suffusions, and with homogeneously distributed, narrowly spaced gorgetal scales, all large on posterior half of dewlap; (3) dark gular streaks in males present (Fig. 16e, f); (4) no patch of enlarged scales in nuchal region; (5) a double row of greatly enlarged (at least three times the size of adjacent scales), keeled and mucronate vertebral scales; (6) usually two sublabial scales in contact with infralabials; (7) 180–222 scales around midbody in males; and (8) keeled scales on dorsal surfaces of upper forelimb and anterior surface of thigh.

Audantia cybotes differs from A. armouri, A. breslini, A. shrevei, and A. saxatilis by having dark gular streaks (vs. usually absent); by having a double row of greatly enlarged, at least three times the size of adjacent scales, keeled and mucronate vertebral scales (vs. those scales only weakly enlarged, usually less than twice the size of adjacent scales, non-mucronate); and by having one or two well-defined pale longitudinal lateral stripes, usually edged with orange or olive-green (vs. such stripes absent). Audantia cybotes differs further from A. armouri by having 180–222 scales around midbody in males (vs. 118–172). Audantia cybotes differs further from A. shrevei by lacking a patch of greatly enlarged scales in nuchal region (vs. such a patch present). Audantia cybotes differs from A. doris by having dark gular streaks (vs. usually absent); by having a male dewlap with homogeneously distributed, narrowly spaced gorgetal scales, all large on posterior half of dewlap (vs. heterogeneously distributed with groups of cluttered scales, scales reduced in size in central portion of dewlap); and by having 180–222 scales around midbody in males (vs. 166–184). Audantia cybotes differs from A. marcanoi and A. strahmi by having a dirty white male dewlap (vs. rose-red at the edge, more orangish anteriorly and posteriorly, but purplish or even bluish toward the center in A. marcanoi, and orange with paler center in A. strahmi). Audantia cybotes differs further from A. marcanoi by having a double row of abruptly and greatly enlarged, at least three times the size of adjacent scales, keeled vertebral scales (vs. vertebral scales gradually and weakly enlarged, not forming a regular double row). Audantia cybotes differs from A. longitibialis by having usually keeled ventral scales (vs. smooth); and a male dewlap dirty white without yellowish or orange suffusions, and with homogeneously distributed, narrowly spaced gorgetal scales, all large on posterior half of dewlap (vs. heterogeneously distributed, somewhat spaced, and with groups of cluttered scales, scales smaller in central region of dewlap or all gorgetals small). Audantia cybotes differs from A. ravifaux by having keeled ventrals (vs. smooth); by having keeled scales on dorsal surface of upper forelimb and anterior surface of thigh (vs. smooth); by having a double row of greatly enlarged, at least three times the size of adjacent scales, keeled and mucronate vertebral scales (vs. those scales only weakly enlarged, usually less than twice the size of adjacent scales, smooth and non-mucronate); and by having homogeneously distributed, narrowly spaced gorgetal scales, all large on posterior half of dewlap (vs. heterogeneously distributed, somewhat spaced, and with groups of cluttered scales, scales smaller in central region of dewlap). For differences between A. cybotes and the species described below, see the respective accounts of the new species (from Köhler et la. 2019: 33). 
CommentSynonymy: Cochran (1941) placed the three nominal taxa A. riisei, A. citrinellus, and A. cybotes saxatilis in the synonymy of Anolis cybotes cybotes. Köhler et al. 2019 moved citrinellus to distichus and synonymized Anolis haetianus GARMAN 1887 with A. cybotes.

Distribution: Köhler et al. 2019 described several new species that were previously included in A. cybotes and thus restricted cybotes to Tiburon peninsula. Reports from other places thus likely represent other species; these reports include the Dominican Republic, Ile Grande Cayemite, Ile de la Tortue, Ile a Vache, Ile a Cabrit, Ile de la Gonave, Isla Saona Isla Catalina, Isla Catalinita;
Suriname (introduced), USA (introduced to S Florida).

For illustrations see Boulenger, 1885; Noble, 1923; Klingel, 1929; Mertens, 1939; Cochran, 1941; Williams, 1963; Williams, 1975.

Karyotype: 2n=36, XY (males) or XX (females) (Giovannotti et al. 2016)

NCBI taxID: 237983 [haetianus] 
Etymology 
References
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