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Anolis distichus COPE, 1861

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesAnolis distichus distichus COPE 1861
Anolis distichus biminiensis OLIVER 1948
Anolis distichus dapsilis SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis distichus distichoides ROSÉN 1911
Anolis distichus floridanus SMITH & MCCAULEY 1948
Anolis distichus juliae COCHRAN 1934
Anolis distichus ocior SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis distichus patruelis SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis distichus sejunctus SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis distichus suppar SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis distichus tostus SCHWARTZ 1968 
Common NamesHispaniolan gracile anole, Bark anole 
SynonymAnolis distichus COPE 1861: 208
Anolis distichus — BOULENGER 1885: 33
Anolis distichus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 93
Anolis distichus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 252
Anolis distichus — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Anolis distichus — GLOR & LAPORT 2012
Ctenonotus distichus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Anolis distichus — CROTHER et al. 2012

Anolis distichus distichus COPE 1861
Anolis distichus COPE 1862: 208
Anolis distichus distichus — BARBOUR 1937: 125
Ctenonotus distichus distichus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 108
Ctenonotus distichus distichus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus biminiensis OLIVER 1948
Anolis distichus biminiensis OLIVER 1948: 16
Ctenonotus distichus biminiensis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 108
Ctenonotus distichus biminiensis — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus dapsilis SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis distichus dapsilis SCHWARTZ 1968: 270
Ctenonotus distichus dapsilis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 108
Ctenonotus distichus dapsilis — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus distichoides ROSÉN 1911
Anolis distichoides ROSEN 1911
Anolis distichus distichoides — BARBOUR 1937: 125
Ctenonotus distichus distichoides — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 108
Anolis distichus distichoides — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991
Ctenonotus distichus distichoides — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus floridanus SMITH & MCCAULEY 1948
Anolis distichus floridanus — DENZER 1985
Anolis distichus floridanus — CROTHER et al. 2012

Anolis distichus juliae COCHRAN 1934
Anolis dominicensis juliae COCHRAN 1934
Anolis distichus juliae — BARBOUR & LOVERIDGE 1946
Ctenonotus distichus juliae — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 110
Anolis distichus juliae — POWELL et al. 1999
Ctenonotus distichus juliae — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus ocior SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis distichus ocior SCHWARTZ 1968: 271
Ctenonotus distichus ocior — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 110
Ctenonotus distichus ocior — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus patruelis SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis distichus patruelis SCHWARTZ 1968: 297
Ctenonotus distichus patruelis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 110
Ctenonotus distichus patruelis — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus sejunctus SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis distichus sejunctus SCHWARTZ 1968: 284
Ctenonotus distichus sejunctus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 110
Ctenonotus distichus sejunctus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus suppar SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis distichus suppar SCHWARTZ 1968: 295
Ctenonotus distichus suppar — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 111
Ctenonotus distichus suppar — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus tostus SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis distichus tostus SCHWARTZ 1968: 286
Ctenonotus distichus tostus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 111
Ctenonotus distichus tostus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012 
DistributionUSA (introduced to S Florida), Bahamas,
Hispaniola: Haiti, Dominican Republic,
Cat Island I, Little San Salvador, Ile de la Tortue, Ile-a-Vache,
Ile Grande Cayemite, Ile Petite Cayemite, Isla Saona, Isla Catalina

distichus: Great Bahama Bank (except Bimini Is., Andros I., Berry Is., Eleuthera I., Eleuthera Cays); Cat I. material intergradient between A. d. distichus, A. d. dapsilis, and A. d. ocior. Type locality: New Providence Island, Bahama Islands.

biminiensis: Bahama Is.: Bimini Is.;Type locality: Western end of South Bimini Island, Bahama Islands.

dapsilis: Great Bahama Bank: Eleuthera I., Eleuthera Cays, Little San Salvador I.; Type locality: Ocean side opposite Hatchet Bay, Eleuthera Island, Bahama Islands. Apparently the subspecies introduced on Grand Bahama I.

distichoides: Great Bahama Bank: Andros I., Berry Is.; Bahamas: Andros Island (fide Barbour 1914). Type locality: Mastic Point and Stanniard Creek, Andros Island, Bahama Islands.

juliae: Hispaniola, Île-à-Vache.Type locality: IIe-a-Vache, Haiti.

ocior: Bahama Is.: Rum Cay; San Salvador I. including satellite cays.Type locality: Port Nelson, Rum Cay, Bahama Islands.

patruelis: Hispaniola, Haiti, Île Grande Cayemite; possibly Île Petite Cayemite. Type locality: Vicinity of Pointe Sable, lIe Grande Cayemite, Haiti.

sejunctus: República Dominicana, Isla Saona. Type locality: Environs of Mano Juan, Isla Saona, Republica Dominicana.

suppar: Hispaniola, Haiti, extreme western tip of Tiburon Peninsula; intergrades with A. d. aurifer on north coast.Type locality: Dame-Marie, south side of town along coast, Departement de la Grand'Anse, Haiti.

tostus: República Dominicana, Isla Catalina. Type locality: Isla Catalina, western end, Republica Dominicana. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: ANSP 7780-87
Holotype: AMNH 68640 [biminiensis]
Holotype: MCZ 81139 [dapsilis]
Syntypes: presumed in Zool. Mus. Univ. Lund [distichoides]
Holotype: MCZ 37517 [juliae]
Holotype: MCZ 81140 [ocior]
Holotype: MCZ 81138 [patruelis]
Holotype: MCZ 91131 [sejunctus]
Holotype: MCZ 81137 [suppar]
Holotype: MCZ 81124 [tostus] 
CommentFor illustrations see Mertens, 1939; Mertens, 1940; Cochran, 1941; Schwartz, 1968 b.

Synonymy: Anolis brevirostris is listed as a synonym of A. distichus by BOULENGER (1885) but is now considered as a valid species.

Subspecies: GLOR & LAPORT 2012 elevated several subspecies to full species rank, including aurifer, dominicensis, favillarum, ignigularis, properus, ravitergum, and vinosus. Similarly, MacGuigan et al. 2017 found that A. distichus is comprised of numerous distinct populations that likely warrant recognition as distinct species. However, neither were able to provide diagnostic phenotypic traits to distinguish the candidate species identified on the basis of genomic differentiation. MacGuigan et al. also found that “dewlap color is not by itself a reliable diagnostic trait in the A. distichus complex, and perhaps in anoles more broadly”. Note however, that the distichus complex has always been recognized as the major exception to the idea that dewlap color variation relates to reproductive isolation.

Species group: Ctenonotus distichus species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
References
  • Antley, Dayton L.; Taylor R. Lind, Brendan T. Gabbart, and Tiffany L. Zinn 2016. Microhabitat, activity, and approach distances of the San Salvador Bark Anole (Anolis distichus ocior) IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 23 (2): 75–81 - get paper here
  • Arnold, D. L. 1980. Geographic variation in Anolis brevirostris (Sauria: Iguanidae) in Hispaniola. Breviora (461):1-31 - get paper here
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  • Glor, Richard E.; Robert G. Laport 2012. Are subspecies of Anolis lizards that differ in dewlap color and pattern also genetically distinct? A mitochondrial analysis. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 64 (2): 255-260 - get paper here
  • Helmus, Matthew R.; Jocelyn E. Behm, Wendy A.M. Jesse, Jason J. Kolbe,Jacintha Ellers, and Jonathan B. Losos 2016. EXOTICS EXHIBIT MORE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY THAN NATIVES: A COMPARISON OF THE ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION OF EXOTIC AND NATIVE ANOLE LIZARDS. In: Invasion Genetics: The Baker and Stebbins Legacy, First Edition. Edited by Spencer C. H. Barrett, Robert I. Colautti, Katrina M. Dlugosch, and Loren H. Rieseberg; John Wiley & Sons, pp. 122-138 (publication year given as 2017 in the book) - get paper here
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  • Kolbe, J.J.; Richard E. GLOR, LOURDES RODRIGUEZ SCHETTINO,<br />ADA CHAMIZO LARA, ALLAN LARSON AND JONATHAN B. LOSOS 2007. Multiple Sources, Admixture, and Genetic Variation in Introduced Anolis Lizard Populations. Conservation Biology 21 (6): 1612–1625 - get paper here
  • Krysko, K.K.; Enge, K.M.; Donlan, E.M.; Golden, E.Z.; Burgess, J.P. & Larson, K.W. 2009. THE NON-MARINE HERPETOFAUNA OF KEY BISCAYNE, FLORIDA. Herp. Cons. Biol. 5 (1):132-142 - get paper here
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  • Mertens, R. 1939. Herpetologische Ergebnisse einer Reise nach der Insel Hispaniola, Westindien. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) 449: 1-84.
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  • Ng, Julienne; Anthony J. Geneva, Sabina Noll and Richard E. Glor 2017. Signals and Speciation: Anolis Dewlap Color as a Reproductive Barrier Journal of Herpetology 51 (3): 437 - get paper here
  • Ng, Julienne; Audrey L. Kelly, Daniel J. MacGuigan and Richard E. Glor 2013. The Role of Heritable and Dietary Factors in the Sexual Signal of a Hispaniolan Anolis Lizard, Anolis distichus. J Hered (2013) 104 (6): 862-873.<br />doi: 10.1093/jhered/est060 - get paper here
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  • Rosén, Nils 1911. Contributions to the Fauna of the Bahamas I. A general account of the fauna, with remarks on the physiography of the islands. II. The Reptiles III. The Fishes. Lunds univ. arsskrift 7 (5): 1-72
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  • Schmidt, T. 2013. Auf Schlangensuche im Familien-Urlaub. Ein Drama in drei Akten. Reptilia (Münster) 18 (99): 68-75 - get paper here
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  • Schwartz, A. 1971. Anolis distichus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (108. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1988. West Indian Amphibian and Reptiles: A Checklist. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contr. Biol. Geol. No. 74: 264 pp.
  • SIFERS,SUSAN M.; MELISSA L. YESKA; YANERYS M. RAMOS ROBERT POWELL AND JOHN S. PARMERLEE, JR. 2001. Anolis Lizards Restricted to Altered Edge Habitats in a Hispaniolan Cloud Forest. Carib. J. Sci. 37 (1-2): 55-62
  • Smith, Hobart M.;McCauley, Robert H., Jr 1948. Another new anole from South Florida. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 61: 159-166 - get paper here
  • Webster,T.P. 1978. Hybridization of Hispaniolan lizards in the Anolis distichus species group. Anolis Newsletter 3: 166-170
  • Werning, H. 2013. Pack die Badehose ein – zu Besuch in Georg Reitmaiers Terrarium der Superlative. Reptilia (Münster) 18 (100): 28-35 - get paper here
 
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