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Anolis leucodera KÖHLER & HEDGES, 2016

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymAnolis leucodera KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 73
Anolis chlorocyanus — WILLIAMS 1965 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus — SCHWARTZ 1980 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus — POWELL et al. 1996 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus chlorocyanus — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus chlorocyanus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus chlorocyanus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus chlorocyanus — RAMOS & POWELL 2001b (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus chlorocyanus — HENDERSON & POWELL 2009 (in part.) 
DistributionHaiti (Nord’Ouest), elevation 0-490 m.

Type locality: Môle Saint Nicolas (19.80583, -73.37556), near sea level, Département de Nord’Ouest, Haiti.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype. SMF 98030, an adult male; collected 27 April 1997 by S. Blair Hedges, Richard Thomas, and Felix Charles. Field tag number USNM FS (field series) 194567.
Paratypes. All from Département de Nord’Ouest, Haiti: USNM 558723 (genetic sample: KJ566833, EF531489), same collecting data as holotype; SMF 98173–74, USNM 558720–22), 9.1 mi NE Môle Saint Nicolas at Rivière Côtes de Fer (19.86173, -73.26586), 30 m, collected 26 April 1997 by S. Blair Hedges, Richard Thomas, and Felix Charles; SMF 98175, Bombardopolis (19.69135, -73.34209), 490 m, collected 27 April 1997 by S. Blair Hedges and Richard Thomas; KU 251978, Môle Saint Nicolas (19.80569, -73.37619), collected 4 June 1979 by natives and given to Albert Schwartz. 
CommentDistribution: see map in KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 58 (Fig. 40).

Conservation. Given its presumably small geographic range and area of occupancy, highly degraded and fragmented habitats, and continuing threat of deforestation, we consider the conservation status of A. leucodera to be Critically Endangered based on criterion B1ab(iii) of the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (IUCN, 2012).

Diagnosis. A moderate-sized to moderately large species of Anolis that differs from all other Hispaniolan congeners by the combination of having (1) predominantly green overall coloration in life (capable of rapid color change to brown); (2) no white subocular stripe and no white streak on lateral neck (3) relatively short hind legs (fourth toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to ear opening or only slightly beyond ear opening); (4) the ventral scales at midbody faintly to weakly keeled; (5) 40–46 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; (6) male dewlap bluish green or brown (after metachrosis) in life without a suffusion of black pigment on posterior portion, gorgetals large and irregularly arranged, especially on posterior portion of dewlap; (7) ratio tail length / SVL >1.7, usually >2.0. Among the Anolis species occuring treated in this contribution, A. leucodera is most similar to A. chlorocyanus, A. cyanostictus, and A. peynadoi from which it differs by the absence of suffusion of black pigment on the dewlap (vs. posterior portion of dewlap moderately to heavily suffused with black pigment in A. cyanostictus, A. chlorocyanus, and A. peynadoi). Anolis leucodera differs further from A. chlorocyanus and A. peynadoi by having faintly to weakly keeled ventrals (vs. smooth in A. chlorocyanus and A. peynadoi). Anolis leucodera differs further from A. cyanostictus by the lack of pale brown blotches above and anterior to shoulder as well as immediately posterior to eye (vs. such blotches present in A. cyanostictus). Anolis leucodera differs further from A. peynadoi by the lack of a white streak on upper lip (vs. a white streak usually present in A. peynadoi, most obvious in life). Anolis leucodera differs from the species related to A. coelestinus by having (1) 12–17 loreal scales in a maximum of 3 rows (vs. 18–48, usually >28 loreal scales in a maximum of 3–7 rows); (2) the absence of a distinct white subocular stripe that continues as a white streak onto lateral neck (vs. such stripe and streak present or absent); and (3) a brown to reddish brown iris in life (vs. a blue iris). Anolis leucodera differs from the species related to A. aliniger and A. singularis by (1) having a longer tail with a ratio tail length / SVL >1.7, usually >2.0 (vs. <1.7); (2) a distinct white subocular stripe that continues as a white streak onto lateral neck (vs. no such stripe and streak); (3) usually >38 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; and (4) no conspicuously dark colored distal portion of tail in front of pale colored tail tip (vs. such a tail color pattern present, most obvious in life). 
EtymologyThe name leucodera is a composite noun in apposition derived from leukos (Greek for “white”) and dere (Greek for “neck, throat”) referring to the absence of black pigment on the dewlap typical for this species. 
References
  • Henderson, Robert W. & Robert Powell 2009. NATURAL HISTORY OF WEST INDIAN REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS. University Press of Florida, 576 pp.
  • Köhler, Gunther and S. Blair Hedges 2016. A revision of the green anoles of Hispaniola with description of eight new species (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) NOVITATES CARIBAEA 9: 1-135 - get paper here
  • Powell, R., R. W. Henderson, K. Adler, And H. A. Dundee. 1996. An annotated checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. In R. Powell and R. W. Henderson (eds.), Contributions to West Indian Herpetology: A Tribute to Albert Schwartz, p.51-93. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca (New York). Contributions to Herpetology, volume 12.
  • Ramos, Yanerys M. and Robert Powell. 2001. Anolis chlorocyanus Duméril and Bibron. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (728): 1-6 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. 1980. The herpetogeography of Hispaniola, West Indies. Stud. on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands 61: 86-127. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and R. Thomas. 1975. A checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ. 1:1-216.
  • Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1988. West Indian Amphibian and Reptiles: A Checklist. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contr. Biol. Geol. No. 74: 264 pp.
  • Williams, E. E. 1965. The species of Hispaniolan green anoles (Sauria, Iguanidae). Breviora (227): 1-16. - get paper here
 
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