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Anolis mccraniei (KÖHLER, TOWNSEND & PETERSEN, 2016)

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Common Names 
SynonymNorops mccraniei KÖHLER, TOWNSEND & PETERSEN 2016: 11
Anolis mccraniei — TARR et al. 2018
Norops macraniei — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 (in error) 
DistributionHonduras (Olancho), elevation 200-1740 m.

Type locality: Municipalidad de Gualaco: Montaña de Jacaleapa, headwaters of Río del Oro, E slope Cerro de Bañaderos, 15.083288°N, 86.208250°W, elevation 1,180 m asl, Departamento de Olancho, Honduras  
TypesHolotype: SMF 100107, adult male; collected by Josiah H. Townsend, Onán Reyes-Calderón, and Mark Bonta on 12 April 2011; original field number JHT-3393.
Paratypes: All from Municipalidad de Gualaco, Departamento de Olancho, Honduras: SMF 100108, same collecting data as holotype except collected on 11 April 2011; SMF 100104–06, seepage bog approximately 3.75 km N Saguay, 15.145257°N, 86.041291°W, elev. 580 m, collected by Josiah H. Townsend, David Medina, Melissa Medina-Flores, and Onán Reyes-Calderón on 10 April 2011; SMF 100109, pine forest lagoon below El Norte, 15.060539°N, 86.174181°W, elev. 980 m, collected by Josiah H. Townsend, Onán Reyes-Calderón, and Mark Bonta on 11 April 2011; SMF 100110, Parque Nacional Montaña de Botaderos: Municipalidad de Gualaco, Cerro de las Cruces, 15.360621°N, 86.063470°W, elev. 1,160 m, collected by Josiah H. Townsend, David Medina, Melissa Medina-Flores, Onán Reyes-Calderón, Mark Bonta, Christopher Begley, Ricardo Steiner, and Robert Hyman on 15 April 2011; SMF 100111–12, Parque Nacional Montaña de Botaderos: Municipalidad de Gualaco, Quebrada Las Delicias, 15.370624°N, 86.047456°W, elev. 1,205 m, collected by Josiah H. Townsend, Melissa Medina-Flores, Onán Reyes-Calderón, David Medina, Mark Bonta, Christopher Begley, Ricardo Steiner, and Robert Hyman on 16 April 2011. SMF 100104–05, 100108, 100111 are adult males, the remaining paratypes are adult females, except for SMF 100109, which is a subadult female. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A medium-sized (maximum snout–vent length (SVL) 54.5 mm in males, 53.0 mm in females) species (our Species D of the Norops tropidonotus complex) of the genus Norops (sensu Nicholson et al., 2012) that is most similar in external morphology to N. tropidonotus, N. compressicauda, N. spilorhipis, N. wampuensis, and a species described below (our Species C of the Norops tropidonotus complex). These five species and N. mccraniei are differentiated from all other anoles by a combination of the following characters: (1) distinctly enlarged and strongly keeled dorsal scale rows, (2) a tube-like axillary pocket, (3) scales anterior to ear opening keeled and much larger than small and granular scales posterior to ear opening, and (4) a lack of enlarged postcloacal scales in males. Norops mccraniei differs from the other five species in the Norops tropidonotus complex by mean genetic distances of 3.2–4.5%. Norops mccraniei can be distinguished from N. compressicauda by the presence of a large orange male dewlap with a dark central streak (vs. a pink male dewlap in N. compressicauda) and a brownish-red iris color (vs. blue in N. compressicauda). Norops mccraniei differs from N. tropidonotus by the presence of a large, bilobed hemipenis with a large asulcate processus (vs. hemipenis small, unilobate without an asulcate processus in N. tropidonotus). Norops mccraniei differs from N. wampuensis by the presence of a distinct dark streak in the male dewlap and a slightly larger size reaching 54.5 mm in males, 53.0 mm SVL in females (vs. distinct dark central streak absent in male dewlap and males and females reaching 51 mm SVL in N. wampuensis). Norops mccraniei differs from N. spilorhipis by the presence of a hemipenis with two asulcate processi, a finger-like one at the base of the apex and a conical one at the base of the truncus (vs. a single asulcate ridge-like processus on the distal part of the truncus). For differences between N. mccraniei and the species described below, see the account of the new species. Norops mccraniei differs from the somewhat similar Central American species N. humilis (Peters, 1863), N. marsupialis (Taylor, 1956), N. quaggulus (Cope, 1885), and N. uniformis by the presence of keeled scales anterior to ear opening, much larger than small and granular scales posterior to ear opening, and a larger size, reaching 54.5 mm in males, 53.0 mm SVL in females (vs. scales anterior and posterior to ear opening subequal, small, and granular, SVL of adults < 51 mm in N. humilis, < 49 mm in N. marsupialis, < 42 mm in N. quaggulus, and < 42 mm in N. uniformis, respectively).
CommentDistribution: see map in KÖHLER et al. 2016: 27 (Fig. 9).

Species group: Norops tropidonotus complex (with N. compressicauda, N. tropidonotus, N. wampuensis, N. mccraniei, N. wilsoni, N. spilorhipis) fide Köhler et al. 2016.

Habitat: upland pine-oak forests and adjacent areas of both drier and wetter habitats (Fig. 8). This anole frequently is encountered in both natural and disturbance-related edge habitats, including fence rows and agricultural lands, and often is observed during the daytime while active on the ground or low vegetation. It typically sleeps on the ground under leaf litter or other cover, and females are more terrestrial than males (Jackson, 1973). This species is a com- mon inhabitant of moderate and intermediate elevation coffee plantations throughout its range. The ecological dis- tribution includes the Premontane Moist Forest formation and peripherally into the Lowland Arid Forest, Lowland Dry Forest, Lowland Moist Forest, Premontane Dry Forest, Lower Montane Wet Forest, and Lower Montane Moist Forest formations. Jackson (1973) reported on the ecology and demographics of a population of N. mccraniei (as Anolis tropidonotus) from an undisturbed old growth pine-oak forest outside of Siguatepeque, Departamento de Comayagua, Honduras, and estimated a home-range size of 115–190 m2 for males and 20–35 m2 for females. We have found N. mccraniei in sympatry with congeners N. cupreus (Hallowell, 1860), N. lemurinus, N. rodriguezii (Bocourt, 1873b), and N. yoroensis McCranie, Nicholson, and Köhler, 2001 [KÖHLER et al. 2016: 14]. 
Etymology“The specific name mccraniei honors our friend and colleague James Randall (Randy) McCranie, who is one of the leading authorities of the Honduran herpetofauna. Randy is known for his thorough and detailed herpetological work and has authored numerous articles on the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, as well as several monographic treatments of its herpetofauna.” [KÖHLER et al. 2016: 15]. 
  • Jackson, J. F. 1973. Notes on the population biology of Anolis tropidonotus in a Honduran highland pine forest. Journal of Herpetology 7: 309–311 - get paper here
  • Köhler, Gunther, Josiah H. Townsend and Claus Bo P. Petersen. 2016. Taxonomic revision of the Norops tropidonotus complex (Squamata, Dactyloidae), with the resurrection of N. spilorhipis (Alvarez del Toro and Smith, 1956) and the description of two new species. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (1): 8–41 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2018. The Lizards, Crocodiles, and Turtles of Honduras. Systematics, Distribution, and Conservation. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Special Publication Series (2): 1- 666 - get paper here
  • Nicholson KE, C. Guyer, and JG Phillips 2017. Biogeographic Origin of Mainland Norops (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Assumptions Inhibiting Progress in Comparative Biology (eds. Crother and Parenti), pp. 169–184
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Phillips, JG, J. Deitloff, C. Guyer, S. Huetteman, and KE Nicholson 2015. Biogeography and evolution of a widespread Central American lizard species complex: Norops humilis, (Squamata: Dactyloidae). BMC Evolutionary Biology 15: 143 - get paper here
  • Tarr, S. , Meiri, S., Hicks, J. J. and Algar, A. C. 2018. A biogeographic reversal in sexual size dimorphism along a continental temperature gradient. Ecography, doi:10.1111/ecog.03593 - get paper here
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