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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesE: Serra dos Órgãos anoles”
Portuguese: papa-ventos da Serra dos Órgãos (in some places in Brazil, anole lizards are colloquially referred to as “papa-ventos”, “wind eaters”, because of their dewlaps). 
DistributionBrazil (Rio de Janeiro)

Type locality: Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos (22°26′55.9′′S, 42°59′09.9′′W; 981 m above sea level), municipality of Teresópolis, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  
TypesHolotype: MNRJ 26927 (field number LOD 1265), adult male (snout-vent length [SVL] 53.3 mm), collected on 10 March 2015, by Leandro O. Drummond, Paulo R. Melo-Sampaio, and Renata M. Pirani.
Paratypes (n = 15): MNRJ 25116 (LOD 1264), adult male (SVL 55.3 mm); MNRJ 25117 (LOD 1266), adult female (SVL 56.7 mm); MNRJ 25118 (LOD 1269), adult female (SVL 61.5 mm); MNRJ 25119 (LOD 1270), adult female (SVL 59.3 mm); MNRJ 25120 (LOD 1271), adult male (SVL 54.9 mm); MNRJ 26930 (LOD 1258), adult male (SVL 51.4 mm); MNRJ 26931-32 (LOD 1259-60), adult females (SVL 62.7 mm and 60.7 mm, re- spectively); MNRJ 26933 (LOD 1261), juvenile female (SVL 29.4 mm); MNRJ 26934-35 (LOD 1262-63), adult females (SVL 58.5 mm and 60.4 mm, respectively); MNRJ 26936-37 (LOD 1267-68), adult females (SVL 62.2 mm and 55.1 mm, respectively); all specimens collected in the type locality between 8 and 10 March 2015. MNRJ 26928 (LOD 1139), adult female (SVL 54 mm); MNRJ 26929 (LOD 1140), adult male (SVL 53.8 mm); both collected in the type locality on 16 February 2015, by Leandro O. Drummond and Paulo R. Melo-Sampaio. 
DiagnosisSpecies comparisons (data from species compared to A. neglectus in parentheses): Anolis neglectus can be distinguished from the Norops clade Atlantic Forest species A. fuscoauratus and A. ortonii by 88-97 scales around mid-body (A. fuscoauratus: 124-157; A. ortonii: 123-180), smooth dorsals (weakly keeled), and smooth snout scales between nostrils (keeled). Anolis neglectus further differs from A. fuscoauratus by a lichenous dorsal body coloration (brown or gray), supraorbital semicircles in contact (separated by granular scales) and well-developed dewlap in females (vestigial).
Three species of Dactyloa clade anoles are known to occur in the Atlantic Forest: A. nasofrontalis, A. pseudotigrinus, and A. punctatus. Anolis neglectus is distinguished from A. punctatus by its smaller size (in A. punctatus, maximum SVL of 90 mm in males and 81 mm in females), male maximum SVL smaller than that of females (larger), absence of protuberant snout in males (present), round canthus rostralis (angular), smooth or granular scales on body and head (keeled scales on dorsum, limbs, canthus rostralis, throat, chin and between rostrals), 88-97 scales around mid-body (132-167); moderate-sized red dewlap (when extended) in males with posterior insertion at the level of the posterior border of forelimbs (large white, yellow, or orange dewlap with or without scattered black spots and extending beyond the posterior border of the forelimbs), presence of dewlap in females (vestigial), and lichenous dorsal pattern (uniformly green).
The new species is similar to A. pseudotigrinus and A. nasofrontalis in morphology and coloration (fig. 5). It differs from A. pseudotigrinus by having a smaller size (in A. pseudotigrinus, 56.4-57.6 mm in males and 65.2-66 mm in females), hindlimb not reaching posterior insertion of forelimb when adpressed along the body (reaching), prefrontal depression shallow (deep); moderate-sized red dewlap (when extended) with posterior insertion at the level of posterior border of forearm in males (large dewlap with posterior insertion at about midbelly; dewlap color of male A. pseudotigrinus unknown), four to seven rows of gorgetalsternal dewlap scales (12-14), small and uniformly bright orange dewlap with insertion at the level of anterior border of forearm in females (large white dewlap with posterior insertion at the level of posterior border of forearm), presence of an interorbital dark line (absent), 64 to 73 ventrals in a longitudinal row between the level of axilla and groin (79-90), 88-97 scales around mid-body (106-118), and absence of large dark blotches on the vertebral region of preserved specimens (present).
The new species is most similar to its sister A. nasofrontalis. It differs from A. nasofrontalis (figs 4-5) by having a longer and more pointed snout (shorter and more rounded) and prefrontal depression shallow (deep), female dewlap small with uniformly bright orange skin (dewlap orange yellow faded to white posteriorly), and male dewlap with moderate size (small) and uniformly dark red that turned reddish-orange in preservative (pink, faded to white posteriorly; Amaral, 1933). While the dewlaps of females of A. neglectus resemble those of females of A. nasofrontalis, we have not seen an orange yellow dewlap faded to white posteriorly (as seen in A. nasofrontalis) in any of the 18 females of A. neglectus that we have examined (see Appendix).
Recognition of the population from the Serra dos Órgãos as a distinct species is further supported by a >400 km geographic separation from closely related taxa and by its 5.24 mya estimated divergence from its sister A. nasofrontalis. This divergence is considerably deeper than those observed between several currently recognized species in the Dactyloa clade of Anolis. This is the case, for instance, for the divergences between: 1) Anolis gorgonae Barbour, 1905 and Anolis chloris Boulenger, 1898; 2) Anolis parilis Williams, 1975b, Anolis fraseri Günther, 1859 and Anolis kunayalae Hulebak et al., 2007; 3) Anolis latifrons, Anolis princeps Boulenger, 1902 and Anolis frenatus Cope, 1899; 4) Anolis heterodermus, Anolis vanzolinii (Williams et al., 1996) and Anolis inderenae (Rueda and Hernández-Camacho, 1988); 5) A. roquet, Anolis extremus Garman, 1987 and Anolis aeneus Gray, 1840; and 6) Anolis jacare Boulenger, 1903 and Anolis anatoloros Ugueto et al., 2007 (fig. 3).
Based on a more extensive sample of anole species (some represented only by morphological data), Poe et al. (2017) found A. nasofrontalis and A. pseudotigrinus to be closely related to Anolis laevis (Cope, 1876), a species that was not included in our analyses due to the lack of genetic data. This species, which is known from a single site in the Andes of Peru, can be easily distinguished from A. neglectus by the presence of a rostral appendage (Williams, 1979). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet, neglectus, is a Latin name meaning “neglected” or “forgotten”. The name is a suitable reference to an arboreal lizard species that remained undetected despite over 200 years of zoological inventories in the Serra dos Órgãos, now a popular tourist destination close to the large city of Rio de Janeiro. The name also alludes to the tragedy that hit the Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil’s first scientific institution, which became 200 years old in 2018. On September 2nd of that same year, after decades of negligence on the part of federal administrations, the Museum’s main building (the São Cristóvão Palace) was consumed by a catastrophic fire. The fire led to the destruction of public exhibits, laboratories, libraries, and up to 18 million items in the archaeological, anthropological, historical, and zoological collections. 
  • Prates, Ivan; Paulo Roberto Melo-Sampaio, Kevin de Queiroz, Ana Carolina Carnaval, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues, Leandro de Oliveira Drummond 2019. Discovery of a new species of Anolis lizards from Brazil and its implications for the historical biogeography of montane Atlantic Forest endemics. Amphibia-Reptilia 41 (1): 87-103 [2020] - get paper here
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