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Anolis pecuarius SCHWARTZ, 1969

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesÎle-à-Vache green anole 
SynonymAnolis coelestinus pecuarius SCHWARTZ 1969: 34
Anolis coelestinus — WILLIAMS 1965 (in part.)
Anolis coelestinus pecuarius — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975
Anolis coelestinus pecuarius — SCHWARTZ 1980 (in part.)
Anolis coelestinus pecuarius — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Anolis coelestinus pecuarius — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991
Anolis coelestinus — POWELL et al. 1996 (in part.)
Anolis coelestinus pecuarius — RAMOS & POWELL 2001
Anolis coelestinus pecuarius — HENDERSON & POWELL 2009
Deiroptyx coelestina pecuaris [sic] — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Anolis pecuarius — KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 28 
DistributionÎle-à-Vache (Haiti)

Type locality: “Western end, Ile-à-Vache, Haiti”  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: MCZ 81141 
CommentSynonymy: mostly after KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 18.

Distribution: see map in KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 22 (Fig. 10).

Species group: Deiroptyx chlorocyana species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012).

Conservation. Given the small range size and ongoing threats, we consider the conservation status of Anolis pecuarius to be Critically Endangered based on criterion B1ab (iii) of the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (IUCN 2012).

Diagnosis. A moderate-sized to moderately large species of Anolis that differs from all other Hispaniolan congeners except A. coelestinus and A. demissus and two species described below by the combination of having (1) predominantly green overall coloration in life (capable of rapid color change to brown); (2) white subocular stripe that continues as a white streak onto lateral neck usually absent (3) hind legs relatively short (fourth toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to ear opening or only slightly beyond ear opening); (4) ventral scales at midbody usually faintly to distinctly keeled; (5) 39–47 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; (6) male dewlap yellowish green or brown (after metachrosis) in life with longitudinal or oblique double rows of gorgetal scales; (7) ratio tail length / SVL >1.7, usually >2.0. Among the Anolis species occuring treated in this contribution, A. pecuarius is most similar to A. coelestinus, A. demissus, and two species described below. Anolis pecuarius differs from A. coelestinus by (1) usually not having a white subocular stripe and no a white streak above shoulder (vs. such a pattern usually present in A. coelestinus); (2) a yellowish brown male dewlap in life (vs. some shade of green in A. coelestinus); and (3) by lacking any pattern on flanks (vs. usually a pattern of pale green vertical bars or blotches present in A. coelestinus). Anolis pecuarius differs from A. demissus by having (1) a yellowish brown male dewlap in life (vs. dark gray to greenish gray in A. demissus); (2) 4 supracaudals per caudal segment, either throughout all discernable segments or having the reduction from 5 to 4 supracaudals per segment before the 5th segment (vs. 5 supracaudals per caudal segment throughout all discernable segments in A. demissus); (3) usually weakly to distinctly keeled ventral scales (vs. usually smooth in A. demissus). Anolis pecuarius differs from A. chlorocyanus, A. cyanostictus, and A. peynadoi by having (1) a yellowish green or brown (after metachrosis) in life dewlap with longitudinal or oblique double rows of gorgetal scales (vs. dewlap bicolored with a darker posterior portion and with regularly spaced more or less homogeneous gorgetal scales); (2) and a blue iris in life (vs. brown to reddish brown). Anolis pecuarius differs further from A. cyanostictus (1) by having a distinct white subocular stripe that continues as a white streak onto lateral neck (vs. no such stripe and streak in A. cyanostictus) and (2) by the lack of pale brown blotches above and anterior to shoulder as well as immediately posterior to eye (vs. such blotches present in A. cyanostictus). Anolis pecuarius differs from A. aliniger and A. singularis by (1) having a longer tail with a ratio tail length / SVL >1.7, usually >2.0 (vs. <1.7); (2) a distinct white subocular stripe that continues as a white streak onto lateral neck (vs. no such stripe and streak); (3) usually >38 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; and (4) no conspicuously dark colored distal portion of tail in front of pale colored tail tip (vs. such a tail color pattern present, most obvious in life). For differences between A. chlorocyanus and the species described below, see the respective accounts of the new species [KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 18]. 
References
  • Henderson, Robert W. & Robert Powell 2009. NATURAL HISTORY OF WEST INDIAN REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS. University Press of Florida, 576 pp.
  • Köhler, Gunther and S. Blair Hedges 2016. A revision of the green anoles of Hispaniola with description of eight new species (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) NOVITATES CARIBAEA 9: 1-135 - get paper here
  • Kwet, Axel 2017. Neue Arten: Liste der im Jahr 2016 neu beschriebenen Reptilien Terraria-Elaphe (3): 54-70 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108
  • Powell, R., R. W. Henderson, K. Adler, And H. A. Dundee. 1996. An annotated checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. In R. Powell and R. W. Henderson (eds.), Contributions to West Indian Herpetology: A Tribute to Albert Schwartz, p.51-93. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca (New York). Contributions to Herpetology, volume 12.
  • Ramos, Yanerys M. and Robert Powell 2001. Anolis coelestinus Cope. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (729): 1-5 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. 1969. A review of the Hispaniolan lizard Anolis coelestinus Cope. Carib. J. Sci. 9 (1-2): 33-38.
  • Schwartz, A. 1980. The herpetogeography of Hispaniola, West Indies. Stud. on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands 61: 86-127. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and R. Thomas. 1975. A checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ. 1:1-216.
  • Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1988. West Indian Amphibian and Reptiles: A Checklist. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contr. Biol. Geol. No. 74: 264 pp.
  • Williams, E. E. 1965. The species of Hispaniolan green anoles (Sauria, Iguanidae). Breviora (227): 1-16. - get paper here
 
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