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Anolis pentaprion COPE, 1863

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesLichen Anole 
SynonymAnolis (Coccoëssus) pentaprion COPE 1863: 178
Anolis pentaprion — BOULENGER 1885: 64
Anolis panamensis BOULENGER 1890 (fide SMITH & TAYLOR 1950)
Anolis pentaprion — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 61
Anolis malkini AYALA 1986 (nom. nudum fide POE et al. 2009)
Norops pentaprion - VILLA et al. 1988
Norops pentaprion — LINER 1994
Norops pentaprion — KÖHLER 2000: 63
Norops pentaprion — NICHOLSON 2002
Anolis pentaprion — CALDERON et al. 2003
Norops pentaprion — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Anolis malkini — RENGIFO et al. 2014 
DistributionS Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, NW Colombia

Type locality: Truando River, Colombia. Locality of neotype: “at San Rafael, ca. 15 km S Los Chiles, 10.73719°N, 84.49378°W, 60 m elevation, Alajuela Province, Costa Rica”. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesNeotype: SMF 83608 (designated by KÖHLER 2010)
Holotype: lost (BARBOUR 1934, SMITH & TAYLOR 1950)
Syntypes (panamensis): BMNH 1946.8.13.7–8 
CommentGroup: Belongs to the pentaprion group which includes seven species: fungosus, ibague, ortonii, pentaprion, sulcifrons, utilensis, and vociferans.

Subspecies: Norops pentaprion crisitifer is listed here as valid species. Anolis pentaprion beckeri BOULENGER 1881 has been elevated to full species status by KÖHLER 2010.

Distribution: A. pentaprion has been split up into 3 species: A. pentaprion (s.str.), A. beckeri, and A. charlesmyeri by Köhler 2010. Hence the older literature lists it for other countries to the north and possibly to the south, e.g. for Ecuador by GÜNTHER 1885, or Mexico by LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008.

Diagnosis. A medium-sized species (SVL in largest specimen examined 77.0 mm in males, 74 mm in females) of the genus Anolis (sensu Poe, 2004) that differs from all Central American anoles except A. beckeri, A. charlesmyersi, A. cristifer, A. fungosus, A. salvini, A. utilensis by (1) having extremely short hind legs (fourth toe of adpressed hindlimb usually reaching to level of tympanum; ratio shank length / head length 0.49–0.84); (2) smooth, juxtaposed ventral scales; (3) a relatively short tail (ratio tail length / SVL 1.0–1.5). Anolis pentaprion differs from A. beckeri by having a pronounced serrated caudal crest (versus lacking a pronounced serrated caudal crest) and by having gorgetal rows with 17–25 narrowly spaced scales (versus gorgetal rows with 4–10 widely spaced scales). Anolis pentaprion differs from A. charlesmyersi by having a pink dewlap in life with purple pigment between rows of gorgetal scales and regular rows with 17–25 small narrowly spaced gorgetal scales (versus a brick red dewlap with few large widely spaced gorgetal scales scattered across the dewlap or in loosely arranged rows with 4–9 widely spaced scales). Anolis pentaprion differs from A. cristifer by having a double row of slightly enlarged middorsal scales, not forming a serrated crest (versus a serrated middorsal crest, at least on posterior portion of dorsum, present in A. cristifer). Anolis pentaprion differs from A. fungosus by lacking bony parietal protuberances (versus having a pair of small bony parietal protuberances posterior and lateral to interparietal plate). Anolis pentaprion differs from A. salvini by having smooth, obliquely conical ventral scales (versus keeled), lacking a dark interorbital bar (versus present), and lacking enlarged postcloacal scales (versus males with a pair of greatly enlarged postcloacal scales). Anolis pentaprion differs from A. utilensis by having the proximal subdigital scales of toes differentiated as slightly broadened lamellae (versus those scales granular) and by having a pronounced serrated caudal crest (versus lacking a pronounced serrated caudal crest). [from KÖHLER 2010].

Species group: Norops auratus Species Group (fide Nicholson et al. 2012) 
References
  • Ayala, S. C. 1986. Saurios de Colombia: Lista actualizada, y distribucion de ejemplares colombianos en los museos. Caldasia 15 (71-75): 555-575
  • Boistel, Renaud;, Anthony Herrel; Renaud Lebrun, Gheylen Daghfous, Paul Tafforeau, Jonathan B. Lososô and Bieke Vanhooydonck|| 2011. Shake Rattle and Roll: The Bony Labyrinth and Aerial Descent in Squamates. Integrative and Comparative Biology, doi:10.1093/icb/icr034
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1890. First report on additions to the lizard collection in the British Museum (Natural History). Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1890: 77—86 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1881. Description of a new species of Anolis from Yucatan. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1881: 921-922 - get paper here
  • Calderon, R.; Cedeño-Vázquez, J.R. & Pozo, C. 2003. New distributional records for amphibians and reptiles from Campeche, Mexico. Herpetological Review 34 (3): 269-272 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1863. Contributions to Neotropical saurology. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14 [1862]: 176-188. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1899. Contributions to the herpetology of New Granada and Argentina, with descriptions of new forms. Philadelphia Mus. Sci. Bull. (1): 1-19
  • Crandell, Kristen E.; Anthony Herrel, Mahmood Sasa, Jonathan B. Losos, Kellar Autumn 2014. Stick or grip? Co-evolution of adhesive toepads and claws in Anolis lizards. Zoology 117 (6): 363-369 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. C. L. G. 1885. Reptilia and Batrachia. Biologia Centrali-Américana. Taylor, & Francis, London, 326 pp. [published in parts from 1885-1902; reprint by the SSAR 1987] - get paper here
  • Gutiérrez Rodríguez, Allan Antonio, Nelson Toval Herrera and Javier Sunyer. 2016. Norops pentaprion (Cope, 1862). Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (2): 507-508 - get paper here
  • Henderson, C.L. 2010. Mammals, Amphibians, and Reptiles of Costa Rica - A field guide. University of Texas Press, Austin, 198 pp.
  • Köhler G. 1996. A new species of anole of the Norops pentaprion group from Isla de Utila, Honduras. (Reptilia: Sauria: Iguanidae) [Norops utilensis]. Senckenbergiana biologica 75 (1/2): 23-31.
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Köhler, G. 2010. A revision of the Central American species related to Anolis pentaprion with the resurrection of A. beckeri and the description of a new species (Squamata: Polychrotidae). Zootaxa 2354: 1–18 - get paper here
  • Köhler, Gunther, James R. McCranie and Larry David Wilson 2001. A new species of anole from western Honduras (Squamata: Polychrotidae). Herpetologica 57 (3):247-255 - get paper here
  • Lee, J. C. 2000. A field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of the Maya world. Cornell University Press, Ithaca,
  • Lee, J.C. 1996. The amphibians and reptiles of the Yucatán Peninsula. Comstock, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 500 pp.
  • Myers, C. W. 1971. Central American lizards related to Anolis pentaprion: two new species from the Cordillera de Talamanca. American Museum Novitates (2471): 1-40 [13] - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K.E. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis and a test of the current infrageneric classification of Norops (beta Anolis). Herpetological Monographs 16: 93-120 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E. & GUNTHER KÖHLER 2014. A new species of the genus Norops from Darién, Panama, with comments on N. sulcifrons (Cope 1899) (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3895 (2): 225–237 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108
  • Ortleb, Edward; Heatwole, Harold 1965. Comments on some Panamanian lizards with a key to the species from Barro Colorado Island, C.Z. and vicinity. Caribbean Journal of Science 5(3-4):141-147.
  • Perez-Higareda, Gonzalo;Smith, Hobart M.;Chiszar, David 1997. Anolis pentaprion (Lichen Anole). Frugivory. Herpetological Review 28 (4): 201-202 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Poe, S.; Velasco, J.; Miyata, K. & Williams, E.E. 2009. Descriptions of two nomen nudum species of Anolis lizard from Northwestern South America. Breviora (516): 1-16 - get paper here
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Stuart, L. C. 1937. Some further notes on the amphibians and reptiles of the Peten Forest of Northern Guatemala. Copeia 1937 (1): 67-70 - get paper here
  • Stuart, L. C. 1948. The amphibians and reptiles of Alta Verapaz Guatamala. Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 69: 1-109 - get paper here
  • Stuart,L.C. 1955. A brief review of the Guatemalan lizards of the genus Anolis. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan No. 91: 1-31 - get paper here
  • Sunyer, Javier 2014. An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nicaragua. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1 (2): 186–202. - get paper here
  • Taylor, E. H. 1956. A review of the lizards of Costa Rica. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 38 (part 1): 3-322 - get paper here
  • Urbina-Cardona, J. Nicolás; Mario Olivares-Pérez, Víctor Hugo Reynoso 2006. Herpetofauna diversity and microenvironment correlates across a pasture–edge–interior ecotone in tropical rainforest fragments in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve of Veracruz, Mexico. Biological Conservation 132: 61–75
 
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