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Anolis peucephilus KÖHLER, TREJO-PÉREZ, PETERSEN, MENDEZ DE LA CRUZ, 2014

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymAnolis peucephilus KÖHLER, TREJO-PÉREZ, PETERSEN, MENDEZ DE LA CRUZ 2014 
DistributionMexico (Oaxaca)

Type locality: ca. 27 km on road N San Gabriel Mixtepec (16.19135°N, 97.09820°W, WGS84), 1325 m, Estado de Oaxaca, Mexico Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: SMF 96368, an adult male; collected 15 March 2013 by Gunther Köhler, Raúl Gómez Trejo Pérez, and Jesús García Grajales. Field tag number GK-4463.
Paratypes. SMF 96369, same collecting data as holotype. GK-4137–38, 4467, ca. 28 km on road N San Gabriel Mixtepec (16.19280°N, 97.10821°W), 1400 m, Estado de Oaxaca, Mexico; collected 15 November 2012 by Gunther Köhler, Raúl Gómez Trejo Pérez, and Jesús García Grajales. SMF 96370, ca. 27.5 km on road N San Gabriel Mixtepec (16.192160°N, 97.105160°W), 1380 m, Estado de Oaxaca, Mexico; collected 15 March 2013 by Gunther Köhler, Raúl Gómez Trejo Pérez, and Jesús García Grajales. SMF 96725, on road from San Gabriel Mixtepec to El Vidrio (16.218130°N, 97.147310°W), 1924 m, Estado de Oaxaca, Mexico; collected 24 June 2013 by Raúl Gómez Trejo Pérez. GK-4137 and SMF 96370 are males, GK-4138, 4467, and SMF 96369, 96725 are females. 
CommentAnolis peucephilus differs from all congeners by having a combination of (1) smooth ventral scales; (2) usually a patch of three greatly enlarged supraocular scales; (3) extremely short hind legs, longest toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to a point between levels of axilla and ear opening, ratio shank length/snout-vent length 0.18–0.21; (4) circumnasal usually in contact with first supralabial; and (5) a large yellowish orange dewlap in males and a very small to small white dewlap in females. In external morphology, A. peucephilus is most similar to A. omiltemanus from which it differs by having even shorter hind legs with the longest toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to a point between levels of axilla and ear opening (versus usually to ear opening, occasionally to slightly beyond ear opening or to a point between shoulder and ear opening in A. omiltemanus), a slightly larger dewlap in females, to 64 mm2 (versus to 41 mm2 in A. omiltemanus), the circumnasal usually in contact with the first supralabial (versus those scales separated by the presence of a subnasal in A. omiltemanus), and 4–6 internasal scales in the new species (versus usually 6–7 in A. omiltemanus). Furthermore, A. peucephilus differs from A. omiltemanus in hemipenial morphology (no finger-like processus on asulcate side in A. peucephilus versus such a processus present in A. omiltemanus). Also, in a preliminary molecular genetic analysis of the mitochondrial CO1 gene fragment, A. peucephilus has a genetic distance of 11.5% from A. omiltemanus. Anolis peucephilus was collected at night while the lizards were sleeping in pine trees, 2–10 m above the ground.

Diagnosis. A small species (SVL in largest male 46.0 mm, largest female 45.0 mm) of the genus Anolis (sensu Poe 2004) that differs from all Mexican and Central American anoles by having a combination of (1) smooth ventral scales; (2) usually a patch of three greatly enlarged supraocular scales; (3) extremely short hind legs, longest toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to a point between levels of axilla and ear opening, ratio shank length/ SVL 0.18–0.21; (4) circumnasal usually in contact with first supralabial; and (5) a large yellowish orange dewlap in males and a very small to small white dewlap in females (Fig. 2). In external morphology, A. peucephilus is most similar to A. omiltemanus from which it differs by having even shorter hind legs with the longest toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to a point between levels of axilla and ear opening in the new species (versus usually to ear opening, occasionally to slightly beyond ear opening or to a point between shoulder and ear opening in A. omiltemanus), a slightly larger dewlap in females, in largest female about 64 mm2 (versus to 41 mm2 in A. omiltemanus), the circumnasal usually in contact with the first supralabial (those scales separated by the presence of a subnasal in A. omiltemanus), and 4–6 internasal scales in the new species (versus usually 6–7 in A. omiltemanus). Furthermore, A. peucephilus differs from A. omiltemanus in hemipenial morphology (no finger-like processus on asulcate side in A. peucephilus versus such a processus present in A. omiltemanus). Also, in a preliminary molecular genetic analysis of a CO1 gene fragment, A. peucephilus has a genetic distance of 11.5% from A. omiltemanus. It further differs from the other Mexican species of Anolis with smooth ventral scales known to occur along the Pacific versant as follows (condition for A. peucephilus in parentheses): Anolis liogaster has a pink dewlap in males (yellowish orange) and a small pink dewlap in females (white), longer hind legs with the fourth toe of adpressed hind limb reaching usually to a point between posterior and anterior margin of eye or occasionally to a point between ear opening and eye (to a point between levels of axilla and ear opening), ratio shank length/SVL 0.25–0.28 (0.18–0.21), usually one, exceptionally zero or two enlarged sublabial scales in contact with infralabial scales (two or three), usually two, commonly one, occasionally three, scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles (one). Anolis macrinii is a much larger species, with adults > 80 m SVL (versus <50 mm) and having the supraoculars in 2–3 rows (versus a patch of 3–4 greatly enlarged scales in a single row). Anolis dunni, A. gadovii, and A. taylori have 0–6 enlarged dorsal scale rows (versus 14–18 enlarged dorsal scale rows) and longer hind limbs with the fourth toe of adpressed hind limb reaching usually to a point between posterior and anterior margin of eye or occasionally to a point between ear opening and eye (versus to a point between levels of axilla and ear opening). For a slightly updated diagnosis see Köhler et al. 2014: 174. 
EtymologyThe name peucephilus is a compound adjective derived from peuke (Greek for pine) and philios (Greek for loving) referring to the obvious habitat preference of this species. 
References
  • Castañeda-Hernández, Carlos, Luis Canseco-Márquez and Manuel Ernesto Vargas-Orrego. 2015. Additional distributional records for the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2(3): 368–370 - get paper here
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER 2014. Characters of external morphology used in Anolis taxonomy—Definition of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples. Zootaxa 3774 (2): 201–257 - get paper here
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER; RAÚL GÓMEZ TREJO PÉREZ, CLAUS BO P. PETERSEN & FAUSTO R. MÉNDEZ DE LA CRUZ 2014. A revision of the Mexican Anolis (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) from the Pacific versant west of the Isthmus de Tehuantepec in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla, with the description of six new species. Zootaxa 3862 (1): 001–210 - get paper here
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER; RAÚL GÓMEZ TREJO PÉREZ, CLAUS BO P. PETERSEN & FAUSTO R. MÉNDEZ DE LA CRUZ 2015. A revision of the Mexican Anolis (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) from the Pacific versant west of the Isthmus de Tehuantepec in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla, with the description of six new species: Addendum. Zootaxa 3914 (4): 483–489 - get paper here
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER;RAÚL GÓMEZ TREJO PÉREZ, CLAUS BO P. PETERSEN, FAUSTO R. MENDEZ DE LA CRUZ 2014. A new species of pine anole from the Sierra Madre del Sur in Oaxaca, Mexico (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae: Anolis). Zootaxa 3753 (5): 453–468 - get paper here
  • Kwet, Axel 2015. Liste der im Jahr 2014 neu beschriebenen Reptilien. Terraria-Elaphe 2015 (3): 50-64 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
 
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