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Anolis podocarpus AYALA-VARELA & TORRES-CARVAJAL, 2010

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymAnolis podocarpus AYALA-VARELA & TORRES-CARVAJAL 2010
Dactyloa podocarpus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Dactyloa podocarpus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 

Type locality: Ecuador, Provincia Zamora- Chinchipe, Romerillos Alto, 04°13'35.6"S, 78°56'23.0"W, 1550 m elevation.  
TypesHolotype: QCAZ 10126 (Fig. 1A,B), adult male, 18 December 2009, collected by Fernando Ayala, Steven Poe, Levi Gray, and Julian Davis. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. The new species belongs to the punctatus-subsection (Williams 1976a) by having an arrow-shaped interclavicle [T-shaped in the carolinensis-subsection Williams 1976a]. Within the punctatus-subsection, Anolis podocarpus is a member of (1) the latifrons-series sensu Etheridge 1959 by having at least four parasternal chevrons attached to the dorsal ribs, and the lateral processes of the interclavicle divergent from the proximal parts of the clavicles; (2) the aequatorialis species-group (Williams 1976b) by being of moderate to large size (SVL = 73.6−96.0 mm), with narrow toe lamellae; and (3) the eulaemus-subgroup (Williams and Duellman 1984) by having a typical Anolis digit, in which the distal lamellae of phalanx II distinctly overlap the first proximal subdigital scale of phalanx I. The new species lacks transverse processes on most or all of the autotomic caudal vertebrae.
Among species in the eulaemus-subgroup (Anolis antioquiae Williams 1985, A. eulaemus Boulenger 1908, A. fitchi, A. gemmosus O’Shaughnessy 1875, A. maculigula Williams 1984, A. megalopithecus Rueda-Almonacid 1989, and A. ventrimaculatus Boulenger 1911), A. podocarpus differs from A. antioquiae (character states in parentheses) in lacking a canthal ridge projecting above the loreal region (very sharp canthal ridge projecting above the loreal region), and 8−11 supralabials (6−7). Anolis podocarpus can be distinguished from A. gemmosus by having a SVL > 70 mm in adults (SVL < 70 mm in A. gemmosus), and from A. megalopithecus by having 6−9 postmental scales (3−4 in A. megalopithecus). From the remaining species in the eulaemus-subgroup (character states in parentheses), A. podocarpus differs by the combination of the following characters: (1) dewlap moderate in size in females (rudimentary in A. eulaemus and A. maculigula; absent in A. gemmosus and A. ventrimaculatus); (2) dewlap skin uniform reddish brown or terracotta, with a dark brown tint anteriorly and orange or pink tint posteriorly in males, Fig. 2 (pale brown in A. eulaemus; dark brown, with a pale yellowish brown edge in A. fitchi; dull yellowish green, or bluish green proximally shading to yellow or orange distally in A. gemmosus; bluish gray proximally, with anterior third pale bluish rose and posterior portion white becoming pale blue towards the belly in A. maculigula; red in males and sepia in females in A. megalopithecus; dark brown or orange covered by yel- low rows of scales and a dark blotch at its base in A. ventrimaculatus); (3) dewlap skin uniform dark violet, with a brownish-red tint in females (reddish orange, with black blotches and yellow border in A. antioquiae; dark brown in A. eulaemus; yellowish green to brown, with dark brown blotches in A. fitchi; sepia in A. megalopithecus); (4) dewlap with longitudinal rows of 2−5 granular, minute scales separated by naked skin, Fig. 3 (longitudinal rows of one or two keeled, large scales separated by naked skin in A. fitchi and A. ventrimaculatus); (5) iris bluish turquoise (iris gray or dull bluish gray in males and blue-green in females of Ecuadorian populations; blue in males and pale blue in females of Colombian populations (Williams and Duellman 1984) in A. fitchi; dark brown in A. maculigula; reddish brown in females in A. megalopithecus); (6) 1−3 scales between supraorbital semicircles (4−5 in A. antioquiae, and 5−6 in A. megalopithecus); (7) interparietal scale present (absent in A. antioquiae and A. megalopithecus).
Among all species in the eulaemus-subgroup A. podocarpus is most similar mor- phologically to A. fitchi; in addition to the differences mentioned above, A. podocarpus can be distinguished from A. fitchi (character states in parentheses, Table 1) by having more scales between second canthals (14–20 and 12–20, respectively; t-test, t = 4.126, P < 0.05); more scales bordering the rostral posteriorly (7–12 and 5–10, respectively; t-test, t = 3.551, P < 0.05); more rows of loreals (9–13 and 6–12, respectively; t-test, t = 7.601, P < 0.05); more postmentals (5–9 and 4–8, respectively; t-test, t = 3.119, P < 0.05); shorter dewlap in males (dewlap height/SVL = 0.10–0.23 and 0.18–0.36, respectively; t-test, t = 4.212, P < 0.05); shorter dewlap in females (dewlap height/SVL = 0.11–0.19 and 0.14–0.23, respectively; t-test, t = 3.165, P < 0.05); and sides of neck with light-blue and pale pink small spots in males (sides of neck with a light yellow irregular stripe, Fig. 1G,H) [from AYALA-VARELA & TORRES-CARVAJAL 2010].
CommentSpecies groups: Dactyloa punctata species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet podocarpus alludes to the conifer Podocarpus and derives from the Greek words pous, podos (=foot), and karpos (=fruit). The tree Podocarpus gives its name to Parque Nacional Podocarpus, where the new species described in this paper was discovered. 
  • Ayala-Varela, F.P.; Torres-Carvajal, O. 2010. A new species of dactyloid anole (Iguanidae, Polychrotinae, Anolis) from the southeastern slopes of the Andes of Ecuador. ZooKeys 53: 59–73 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
  • Williams E E; Duellman W E 1984. Anolis fitchi, a new species of the Anolis aequatorialis group from Ecuador and Colombia. Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. (10): 257-266 - get paper here
  • Williams,E.E. 1976. West Indian Anoles: a taxonomic and evolutionary summary. 1. Introduction and a species list. Breviora (440): 1-21 - get paper here
  • Williams,E.E. 1976. South American anoles: the species groups. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 29 (26): 259-268
  • Yánez-Muñoz MH, Reyes-Puig C, Reyes-Puig JP, Velasco JA, Ayala-Varela F, Torres-Carvajal O 2018. A new cryptic species of Anolis lizard from northwestern South America (Iguanidae, Dactyloinae). ZooKeys 794: 135-163 - get paper here
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