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Anolis prasinorius KÖHLER & HEDGES, 2016

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymAnolis prasinorius KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 104
Anolis singularis WILLIAMS 1965: 9
Anolis singularis — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975 (in part.)
Anolis singularis — SCHWARTZ 1980 (in part.)
Anolis singularis — HENDERSON & INCHAUSTEGUI 1984 (in part.)
Anolis singularis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988 (in part.)
Anolis singularis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991 (in part.)
Anolis singularis — POWELL et al. 1996 (in part.)
Anolis singularis — HENDERSON & POWELL 2009 (in part.) 
DistributionDominican Republic (Barahona, E Sierra de Bahoruco), elevation 700-1410 m

Type locality: Cortico (18.11163, -71.22293), 1340 m elevation, Province Barahona, Dominican Republic  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype. SMF 97992, an adult male; collected 31 October 2013 by Gunther Köhler and Marcos Rodríguez. Field tag number GK-4847.
Paratypes. All from Province Barahona, Dominican Republic: KU 216093, 13 mi SE Cabral, collected 28 August 1971 by local collectors and given to Albert Schwartz. KU 216094–95, 12.3 mi SE Cabral, collected 30 August 1971 by local collectors and given to Albert Schwartz. KU 216096, 16 km SW Cabral, collected 31 August 1971 by local collectors and given to Albert Schwartz. KU 253071, 21 km S Cabral, road to La Lanza, collected 3 January 1971 by D. C. Fowler. MCZ R-167755, 21 km SW Barahona at ‘Haitian Village’, collected 10 July 1983 by Glenn Flores. MCZ R-106993, entrance to Monteada Nueva on road to Polo: 1060 m, collected 28 July 1968 by Ernest E. Williams, A. Stanley Rand, and Eugenio de Jesus Marcano F. MCZ R-140145, 12.3 mi SE Cabral, collected 5 October 1973 by T. Preston Webster. MCZ R-146671, 22 km W Barahona on road to Jose Joaquim, collected 23. July 1975 by Ernest E. Williams and William E. Haas. SMF 97979, entrance of road to Cortíco (18.13273, -71.26696), 1060 m, collected 31 October 2013 by Gunther Köhler and Marcos Rodríguez. SMF 98186 (KJ566831, EF531482), Loma del Curro, at crest of Sierra Martín García (18.36996, -71.01179), 1060 m, collected 30 May 1996 by S. Blair Hedges, Renee Sharp, Patrick Parker, and Kristin Nastase. SMF 97978, near Cortíco (18.11137, -71.22675) 1410 m, collected 30 October 2013 by Gunther Köhler and Marcos Rodríguez. SMF 98187 (KJ566832, KJ566892), SMF 98188, 18.6 km S Cabral, 1000 m, collected 6 February 1996 by S. Blair Hedges, Renee Sharp, Patrick Parker, and Kristin Nastase. USNM 558737 (KJ566826, KJ566891), 18.6 km S Cabral, 1000 m, collected 27 July 1991 by Richard Thomas and S. Blair Hedges. USNM 558738 (EF531481), 18.6 km S Cabral, 1000 m, collected 31 May 1996 by S. Blair Hedges, Renee Sharp, Patrick Parker, and Kristin Nastase. USNM 329271 (KJ566810, KJ566885), USNM 329272, 15.3 km S, 6.7 km E (road) Cabral, collected 26 August 1984 by S. Blair Hedges. 
CommentDistribution: see map in KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 85 (Fig. 59).

Conservation. Given its presumably small geographic range, KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016 consider the conservation status of Anolis prasinorius to be Endangered based on criterion B1ab (iii) of the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (IUCN, 2012).

Diagnosis. A moderate-sized species of Anolis that differs from all other Hispaniolan congeners except A. aliniger, A. divius, A. eladioi, A. singularis, and the species described below by the combination of having (1) predominantly green overall coloration in life (capable of rapid color change to brown); (2) no white subocular stripe and no white streak onto lateral neck (3) relatively short hind legs (fourth toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to ear opening or only slightly beyond ear opening); (4) the ventral scales at midbody smooth; (5) <38 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; (6) male dewlap yellowish green or brown (after metachrosis) in life with longitudinal single rows of gorgetal scales or gorgetals not arranged in rows, central gorgetal scales smaller than those on posterior portion of dewlap; and (7) a relatively short tail (ratio tail length/SVL <1.7). Among the Anolis species treated in this contribution, A. prasinorius is most similar to A. aliniger, A. divius, A. eladioi, A. singularis, and the species described below. Anolis prasinorius differs from A. aliniger by the lack of a black axillary blotch (vs. such a blotch usually present in A. aliniger) and in being smaller in body size (SVL to 45 mm in males and to 43 mm in females of A. prasinorius vs. SVL to 58 mm in males and to 52 mm in females of A. aliniger). Anolis prasinorius differs from A. singularis by having the sublabial scales much larger than median scales adjacent to them (vs. sublabial scales about the same size as scales medially adjacent to this row). Anolis prasinorius differs from A. divius by having the central gorgetal scales smaller than those on posterior portion of dewlap (vs. central gorgetals about subequal in size as those on posterior portion of dewlap in A. divius), by having an overall green coloration (vs. some body parts pale to bright blue in A. divius), and in being smaller in body size (SVL to 45 mm in males and to 43 mm in females of A. prasinorius vs. SVL to 68 mm in males and to 55 mm in females of A. divius). Anolis prasinorius is a much smaller species than A. eladioi (SVL to 45 mm in males and to 43 mm in females of A. prasinorius vs. SVL to 63 mm in males and to 56 mm in females of A. eladioi). A gonadal examination of several specimens of A. prasinorius confirmed that this is indeed a tiny species: SMF 98186 (female, 35.4 mm SVL) has an oviducal egg, 11.1 mm long, filling body cavity; SMF 98187 (male, 44.1 mm SVL) and SMF 93188 (male, 35.9 mm SVL) both have greatly enlarged testes with convoluted tubules and sperm-filled ducts. Anolis prasinorius further differs from A. eladioi by having a brown to reddish brown iris in life (vs. pale blue to grayish blue in A. eladioi) and usually having the two median dorsal scale rows distinctly enlarged, about twice the size of the adjacent scales (vs. the two median dorsal scale rows only slightly enlarged, usually less than twice the size of the adjacent scales in A. eladioi). For differences between A. prasinorius and the species described below, see the respective accounts of the new species. 
EtymologyThe name prasinorius is a compound noun in apposition derived from prasinos (Greek for “green”) and oreios (Greek for “of the mountains”) referring to the overall green coloration of the animal and to its habitat in the Sierra de Bahoruco. 
References
  • Henderson, R.W., and Schwartz, A. 1984. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of Hispaniola. Spec. PubI. Milwaukee Public Mus. Biol. and Geol. (4):1-70.
  • Köhler, Gunther and S. Blair Hedges 2016. A revision of the green anoles of Hispaniola with description of eight new species (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) NOVITATES CARIBAEA 9: 1-135 - get paper here
  • Kwet, Axel 2017. Neue Arten: Liste der im Jahr 2016 neu beschriebenen Reptilien Terraria-Elaphe (3): 54-70 - get paper here
  • Powell, R., R. W. Henderson, K. Adler, And H. A. Dundee. 1996. An annotated checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. In R. Powell and R. W. Henderson (eds.), Contributions to West Indian Herpetology: A Tribute to Albert Schwartz, p.51-93. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca (New York). Contributions to Herpetology, volume 12.
  • Schwartz, A. 1980. The herpetogeography of Hispaniola, West Indies. Stud. on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands 61: 86-127. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and R. Thomas. 1975. A checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ. 1:1-216.
  • Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1988. West Indian Amphibian and Reptiles: A Checklist. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contr. Biol. Geol. No. 74: 264 pp.
  • Williams, E. E. 1965. The species of Hispaniolan green anoles (Sauria, Iguanidae). Breviora (227): 1-16. - get paper here
 
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