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Anolis viridius KÖHLER & HEDGES, 2016

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymAnolis viridius KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016
Anolis coelestinus — WILLIAMS 1965 (in part.)
Anolis coelestinus — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975 (in part.)
Anolis coelestinus — SCHWARTZ 1980 (in part.)
Anolis coelestinus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988 (in part.)
Anolis coelestinus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991 (in part.)
Anolis coelestinus — GARCÍA et al. 1994 (in part.)
Anolis coelestinus — POWELL et al. 1996 (in part.)
Anolis coelestinus — RAMOS & POWELL 2001b (in part.)
Anolis coelestinus — HENDERSON & POWELL 2009 (in part.) 
DistributionDominican Republic (E Sierra de Bahoruco), elevation 0-1340 m.

Type locality: Monteada Nueva (18.12108, -71.25484), 1210 m, Province Barahona, Dominican Republic.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype. SMF 98011, an adult male; collected 2 November 2013 by Gunther Köhler and Marcos Rodríguez. Field tag number GK-4864.
Paratypes. All from Province Barahona, Dominican Republic: SMF 98000–04, Los Lirios (18.10834, -71.265050), 1030 m, collected 29 October 2013 by Gunther Köhler and Marcos Rodríguez. SMF 98005, entrance of road to Cortíco (18.13273, -71.26696), 1060 m, collected 31 October 2013 by Gunther Köhler and Marcos Rodríguez. SMF 98006–07, near Polo (18.11350, -71.26964), 855 m, collected 31 October 2013 by Gunther Köhler and Marcos Rodríguez. GK-4845, SMF 98008–10, near Cortíco, Laguna (18.11163, -71.22293), 1340 m, collected 31 October 2013 by Gunther Köhler and Marcos Rodríguez. AMNH 41321, Barahona, collected 15 October 1922 by Gladwyn K. Noble. KU 253038–39, Barahona, collected 24 July 1963 by local collectors. USNM 329049 (KJ566808, EF531472), USNM 329050 (KJ566809), Oviedo Polo (17.78833, -71.39694), collected 21 August 1984 by local collectors. SMF 98189 (KJ566834), USNM 558739, 5 km SW Los Tres Charcos, ca. 0.5 km NW Fondo de Paradise Polo (17.79667, -71.46667), 85 m, collected 1 January 1998 by S. Blair Hedges, Michael Tracy, Renee Sharp, Jenny Cutraro, and Richard Thomas. KU 316261–62, Monteada Nueva, 1210 m, collected 5 March 1990 by Avila Field Biology. MCZ R-143377, Polo, 690 m, collected 11 July 1974 by Paul E. Hertz and Raymond B. Huey. 
CommentSimilar species: Anolis coelestinus, A. chlorodius.

Distribution: see map in KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 22 (Fig. 10).

Conservation. Given its usual abundance wherever this species occurs along with its relatively large geographical range, we consider the conservation status of Anolis viridius to be Least Concern based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (IUCN, 2012).

Diagnosis. A moderate-sized to moderately large species of Anolis that differs from all other Hispaniolan congeners except A. coelestinus, A. chlorodius, A. demissus, and A. pecuarius by the combination of having (1) predominantly green overall coloration in life (capable of rapid color change to brown); (2) a white subocular stripe that continues as a white streak onto lateral neck (3) hind legs relatively short (fourth toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to ear opening or only slightly beyond ear opening); (4) ventral scales at midbody usually perfectly smooth; (5) 39–47 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; (6) male dewlap yellowish green or brown (after metachrosis) in life with longitudinal or oblique double rows of gorgetal scales; (7) ratio tail length / SVL >1.7, usually >2.0.
Among the Anolis species occuring treated in this contribution, A. viridius is most similar to A. coelestinus, A. chlorodius, A. demissus, and A. pecuarius. Anolis viridius differs from A. coelestinus and A. pecuarius by having usually perfectly smooth, rarely faintly keeled ventral scales at midbody (vs. usually distinctly keeled). Anolis viridius differs from A. demissus and A. pecuarius by (1) usually having a white subocular stripe and a white streak on lateral neck and shoulder (vs. such a pattern usually not present in A. demissus and A. pecuarius); a bluish green to yellowish green male dewlap in life (vs. yellowish brown, dark gray, or greenish gray in A. demissus and A. pecuarius); and (3) by usually having a pattern of white to pale green vertical bars or blotches on flanks (vs. usually lacking any pattern on flanks in A. demissus and A. pecuarius). Anolis viridius differs from A. chlorodius by having an overall darker body coloration (Fig. 25), especially evident in the temporal region where the former species has blackish skin between the scales (vs. pale gray or dirty white skin in A. chlorodius). Also, the tail in A. viridius is dark and without distinctive pattern whereas that of A. chlorodius is pale with distinctive spots and bands (Fig. 26). Furthermore, A. viridius has lower supralabials and infralabials than A. chlorodius (ratio height of first supralabial / SVL >0.011 in A. viridius vs. <0.011 in A. chlorodius; Fig. 27), and the head bulges out less in A. viridius than in A. chlorodius (ratio intercanthal width at midpoint of eye center-to-narial distance / SVL >0.10 in A. viridius vs. <0.10 in A. chlorodius; Fig. 28). And it is noticeable that A. viridius has a more depressed snout than A. chlorodius. Finally, the two species differ in the total number of loreals scales (26–43, mean 35.1, in A. viridius vs. 31–60, mean 39.7, in A. chlorodius). Anolis viridius differs from A. chlorocyanus, A. cyanostictus, and A. peynadoi by having (1) a yellowish green or brown (after metachrosis) in life dewlap with longitudinal or oblique double rows of gorgetal scales (vs. dewlap bicolored with a darker posterior portion and with regularly spaced more or less homogeneous gorgetal scales); (2) and a blue iris in life (vs. brown to reddish brown). Anolis viridius differs further from A. cyanostictus (1) by having a distinct white subocular stripe that continues as a white streak onto lateral neck (vs. no such stripe and streak in A. cyanostictus) and (2) by the lack of pale brown blotches above and anterior to shoulder as well as immediately posterior to eye (vs. such blotches present in A. cyanostictus). Anolis viridius differs from A. aliniger and A. singularis by (1) having a longer tail with a ratio tail length / SVL >1.7, usually >2.0 (vs. <1.7); (2) a distinct white subocular stripe that continues as a white streak onto lateral neck (vs. no such stripe and streak); (3) usually >38 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; and (4) no conspicuously dark colored distal portion of tail in front of pale colored tail tip (vs. such a tail color pattern present, most obvious in life). For differences between A. viridius and the species described below, see the respective accounts of the new species. 
EtymologyThe name viridius is a noun in apposition derived from viridis (Latin for “green”).
 
References
  • Garcia R. Queral A. Powell R. Parmerlee J S Jr. Smith D D. Lathrop A. 1994. Evidence of hybridization among green anoles (Lacertilia: Polychrotidae) from Hispaniola. Carib. J. Sci. 30 (3-4): 279- 281.
  • Köhler, Gunther and S. Blair Hedges 2016. A revision of the green anoles of Hispaniola with description of eight new species (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) NOVITATES CARIBAEA 9: 1-135 - get paper here
  • Kwet, Axel 2017. Neue Arten: Liste der im Jahr 2016 neu beschriebenen Reptilien Terraria-Elaphe (3): 54-70 - get paper here
  • Kwet, Axel 2017. Neue Arten. Neue Saumfinger von Hispaniola: grüne und flechtenfarbige Anolis Terraria-Elaphe (1): 52-53 - get paper here
  • Powell, R., R. W. Henderson, K. Adler, And H. A. Dundee. 1996. An annotated checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. In R. Powell and R. W. Henderson (eds.), Contributions to West Indian Herpetology: A Tribute to Albert Schwartz, p.51-93. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca (New York). Contributions to Herpetology, volume 12.
  • Ramos, Yanerys M. and Robert Powell 2001. Anolis coelestinus Cope. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (729): 1-5 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. 1980. The herpetogeography of Hispaniola, West Indies. Stud. on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands 61: 86-127. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and R. Thomas. 1975. A checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ. 1:1-216.
  • Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1988. West Indian Amphibian and Reptiles: A Checklist. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contr. Biol. Geol. No. 74: 264 pp.
  • Williams, E. E. 1965. The species of Hispaniolan green anoles (Sauria, Iguanidae). Breviora (227): 1-16. - get paper here
 
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