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Aparallactus modestus (GÜNTHER, 1859)

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Higher TaxaLamprophiidae, Aparallactinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesAparallactus modestus modestus (GÜNTHER 1859)
Aparallactus modestus ubangensis BOULENGER 1897 
Common NamesWestern Forest Centipede-eater 
SynonymElapops modestus GÜNTHER 1859: 161
Pariaspis plumbeatra COPE 1860: 242
Elapops plumbeater COPE 1860: 566
Elapops (Calamaria) petersii JAN 1862: 32
Elapops Petersi — JAN 1865
Aparallactus peraffinis WERNER 1897 (fide LEBRETON 1999)
Elapops modestus — WERNER 1899
Aparallactus flavitorques BOULENGER 1901 (fide LOVERIDGE 1944:187)
Aparallactus dolloi WERNER 1902 (fide LOVERIDGE 1957)
Aparallactus congicus WERNER 1902 (fide LOVERIDGE 1957)
Aparallactus batesii BOULENGER 1907: 325 (fide LOVERIDGE 1942)
Elapops modestus — STERNFELD 1909
Elapops modestus — DE WITTE 1927: 326
Aparallactus christyi BOULENGER 1910: 512
Aparallactus graueri WERNER 1924
Aparallactus modestus modestus — DE WITTE & LAURENT 1947: 100
Apparallactus [sic] modestus — TAYLOR & WEYER 1958
Aparallactus modestus — RÖDEL & MAHSBERG 2000
Aparallactus modestus — BÖHME et al. 2011
Aparallactus modestus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 48

Aparallactus modestus ubangensis BOULENGER 1897
Aparallactus ubangensis BOULENGER 1897: 279
Elapops modestus — SCHMIDT 1923: 121 (fide HUGHES & BARRY 1969)
Aparallactus modestus ubangensis — DE WITTE & LAURENT 1947: 103
Aparallactus modestus ubangensis — TRAPE & ROUX-ESTÈVE 1995: 41 
DistributionCentral African Republic, Uganda, W/C/E, N? Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Congo (Brazzaville), Cameroon, Nigeria, Togo, Benin, Ghana, Ivory Coast Liberia, Sierra Leone, Cameroon (Lawson 1993), Gabon, Guinea

ubangensis: Zaire, Congo, Uganda

Type locality: West Africa Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.3.7, adult female (Rich).
Holotype: ANSP 4148, Liberia [Pariaspis plumbeatra] 
CommentVenomous! Lacks grooved teeth and may be nonvenomous (GREENE 1997). Not specialized on centipedes as other members of the genus but rather eats earthworms. The description by SCHMIDT (1923) is available online (see URL below). 
References
  • Angel, Fernand 1925. Résultats Scientifiques. Vertebrata. Reptiles et Batraciens. [Mabuia (Mabuiopsis) jeanneli, Lygosoma graueri quinquedigitata, Ablepharus massaiensis]. In: Voyage de Ch. Alluaud et R. Jeannel en Afrique Orientale (1911-1912). - Paris, 2: 1-63.
  • Aylmer, G. 1922. The Snakes of Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone Studies 5: 7-37
  • Böhme, Wolfgang, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Christian Brede & Philipp Wagner 2011. The reptiles (Testudines, Squamata, Crocodylia) of the forested southeast of the Republic Guinea (Guinée forestière), wit a country-wide checklist. Bonn zoological Bulletin 60 (1): 35-61 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1897. A list of reptiles and batrachians from the Congo Free State, with the description of two new snakes. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 19: 276-281 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1910. Descriptions of four new African snakes in the British Museum. [Helicops gendri]. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (8) 5: 512- 513 - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1907. Descriptions of three new snakes discovered by Mr. G.L. Bates in south Cameroon. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 19: 324. - get paper here
  • Briscoe, M.S. 1949. Notes on Snakes Collected in Liberia. Copeia 1949 (1): 16-18 - get paper here
  • Carlino, P. & Pauwels, O.S.G. 2015. An Updated Reptile List of Ivindo National Park, the Herpetofaunal Hotspot of Gabon. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 50(3): 25-39 - get paper here
  • Chifundera, K. 1990. Snakes of Zaire and their bites. Afr. Stud. Monogr. (Kyoto) 10(3): 137-157.
  • Chirio, L. & Lebreton, M. 2007. Atlas des reptiles du Cameroun. MNHN, IRD, Paris 688 pp.
  • Cope, E.D. 1860. Catalogue of the Colubridae in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, with notes and descriptions of new species. Part II. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 241-266 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1861. Catalogue of the Colubrids in the museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Part 3. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 12 [1860]: 553-566 - get paper here
  • Günther,A. 1859. Description of a new genus of West African snakes and revision of the South American Elaps. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (3) 4: 161-174 - get paper here
  • Hughes, B. 2013. Snakes of Bénin, West Africa. Bull. Soc. Herp. France 144: 101-159
  • Hughes, B. & Barry,D.H. 1969. The snakes of Ghana: a checklist and key. Bull. Inst. Franc. Afrique Noire A, 31: 1004-1041
  • Jackson, K. & Blackburn, D.C. 2007. The amphibians and reptiles of Nouabale-Ndoki National Park, Republic of Congo (Brazzaville). Salamandra 43 (3): 149-164 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1862. Enumerazione sistematico delle specie d'ofidi del gruppo Calamaridae. Arch. Zool., Anat. Fisiol., 2: 1-76. - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 13. Livraison. [Homalosoma mite]. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Lawson, Dwight P. 1993. The reptiles and amphibians of the Korup National Park Project, Cameroon. Herpetological Natural History 1 (2): 27-90
  • LeBreton, Matthew 1999. A working checklist of the herpetofauna of Cameroon. Netherlands Committee for IUCN, 160 pp.
  • Loveridge, A. 1936. African reptiles and amphibians in the Field Museum of Natural History. Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, 22 (1): 1-122 - get paper here
  • Loveridge,A. 1957. Check list of the reptiles and amphibians of east Africa (Uganda, Kenya, Tanganyika, Zanzibar). Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 117 (2): 153-362 - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G. & Vande weghe, J.P. 2008. Les reptiles du Gabon. Smithsonian Institution, Washington: 272 pp. - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G.; Christy, P. & honorez, A. 2006. Reptiles and National Parks in Gabon, Western Central Africa. Hamadryad 30 (1-2): 181-196 - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G.; David, P. 2008. Miscellanea Herpetologica Gabonica II. Hamadryad 32 (1): 19 – 24 - get paper here
  • Pitman,C.R.S. 1974. A guide to the snakes of Uganda. Codicote, Wheldon & Wesley, L., 290 pp.
  • Rödel M O; Mahsberg D 2000. Vorläufige Liste der Schlangen des Tai-Nationalparks/Elfenbeinküste und angrenzender Gebiete. Salamandra 36 (1): 25-38
  • Segniagbeto GLazcano. H., Trape J. F., David P., Ohler A., Dubois A. & Glitho I. A. 2011. The snake fauna of Togo: systematics, distribution and biogeography, with remarks on selected taxonomic problems. Zoosystema 33 (3): 325-360. DOI: 10.5252/z2011n3a4 - get paper here
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2002. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147] - get paper here
  • Sternfeld, R. 1909. Die Fauna der deutschen Kolonien: Die Schlangen Togos. Berlin, R. Friedländer & Sohn, 29 pp.
  • Taylor, Edward H.;Weyer, Dora 1958. Report on a collection of amphibians and reptiles from Harbel, Republic of Liberia. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 38 (14): 1191-1229 - get paper here
  • Trape, J.F. & R. ROUX-ESTÈVE 1990. Note sur une collection de serpents du Congo avec description d'une espèce nouvelle. Rev. Zool. Afr. (J. Afr. Zool.) 104: 375-383
  • Trape, J.F. & R. ROUX-ESTÈVE 1995. Les serpents du Congo: liste commentée et clé de détermination. Journal of African Zoology 109 (1): 31-50
  • TRAPE, JEAN-FRANÇOIS & CELLOU BALDÉ 2014. A checklist of the snake fauna of Guinea, with taxonomic changes in the genera Philothamnus and Dipsadoboa (Colubridae) and a comparison with the snake fauna of some other West African countries. Zootaxa 3900 (3): 301–338
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, F. 1897. Über Reptilien und Batrachier aus Togoland, Kamerun und Tunis aus dem Kgl. Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges., Wien 47: 395-407
  • Werner, F. 1899. Ueber Reptilien und Batrachier aus Togoland, Kamerun und Deutsch-Neu-Guinea grösstentheils aus dem k. Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 49: 132-157 - get paper here
  • Werner, F. 1902. Über westafrikanische Reptilien. Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 52: 332-348
  • Witte, G. F. de & LAURENT,R.F. 1947. Revision d'un groupe de Colubridae africains: genres Calamelaps, Miodon, Aparallactus, et formes affines. Mém. Mus. Roy. Hist. Nat. Belgique (sér. 2) 29: 1-134
  • Witte, Gaston-François de 1927. Contributions à la Faune Herpétologique du Congo Belge. I. Liste des Reptiles et des Batraciens récoltés au Mayumbe par le Dr. Schouteden (1920-22). Revue Zoologique Africaine (Bruxelles), 15 (3): 320-332.
 
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