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Apostolepis assimilis (REINHARDT, 1861)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesReinhardt's Burrowing Snake 
SynonymElapomorphus assimilis REINHARDT 1861: 235
Elapomorphus assimilis — JAN 1865
Elapomorphus assimilis — STRAUCH 1884: 586
Apostolepis assimilis - BOULENGER 1896: 234
Apostolepis assimilis — PETERS et al. 1970: 22
Apostolepis assimilis - CEI 1993
Apostolepis assimilis — DE LEMA 2002
Apostolepis assimilis — BERNILS et al. 2007
Apostolepis assimilis — MARTINS & DE LEMA 2015
Apostolepis assimilis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 50 
DistributionC/SW Brazil (central Brazilian cerrados, Goias, Mato Grosso), Argentina (Chaco, uncertain), E Paraguay

Type locality: Minas Gerais, Brazil Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: ZMUC 63806 
CommentSynonymy that of CEI 1993.

Belongs to the assimilis species group of Apostololepis that can be distinguished within the genus Apostolepis. The group is characterized by a uniform red dorsal pattern, broad nucho-cervical collars, enlarged light snout blotch, dark ventral head, and entirely black terminal shield.

Diagnosis: Rostral short and rounded, not prominent; little visible from above;
ventrals 236-267 in males, 246-270 in females; subcaudals 31-39 in males, 25-31 in females, light snout blotch cream; white supralabial blotch usually covering at least two supralabials; a single white nuchal color 2-3 scales long, followed by a black cervical color 3-4, restricted dorsally. 
References
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Cei, J. M. 1993. Reptiles del noroeste, nordeste y este de la Argentina. Museo Regionale Sci. Naturale Torino, Monografie 14: 1-949
  • FERRAREZZI, HEBERT; FAUSTO ERRITTO BARBO & <br />CRISTINA ESPAÑA ALBUQUERQUE 2005. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF A NEW SPECIES OF APOSTOLEPIS FROM BRAZILIAN CERRADO WITH NOTES ON THE ASSIMILIS GROUP (SERPENTES: COLUBRIDAE: XENODONTINAE: ELAPOMORPHINI). Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia 45(16): 215-229 - get paper here
  • Franca, F.G.R.; Daniel O. Mesquita, Cristiano C. Nogueira, and <br />Alexandre F. B. Araújo 2008. Phylogeny and Ecology Determine Morphological Structure in a Snake Assemblage in the Central Brazilian Cerrado. Copeia 2008 (1): 23-38 - get paper here
  • Giraudo, A. & G. J. Scrocchi 1998. A new species of Apostolepis (Serpentes: Colubridae) and comments on the genus in Argentina. Herpetologica 54 (4): 470-476 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 14. Livraison. [Elapomorphus d’Orbignyi, Coronella getulus var. Sayi]. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Klaczko, J; Sherratt E, Setz EZF 2016. Are Diet Preferences Associated to Skulls Shape Diversification in Xenodontine Snakes? PLoS ONE 11(2): e0148375. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0148375 - get paper here
  • Lema, T. de 2004. Description of a new species of Apostolepis Cope, 1861 (Serpentes, Elapomorphinae) from Brazilian Cerrado. Acta Biologica Leopoldensia, 26(1): 155-160
  • Lema, Th. de 2002. Preliminary Account of South American Elapomorphinae Snakes (Colubridae). Biociencias [preprint]
  • Lema, Thales de 2002. Redescription of Apostolepis sanctaeritae Werner 1924 (Serpentes, Colubridae), and a comparison with related species. Copeia 2002 (4): 1147-1151 - get paper here
  • Lema, Thales De & Márcia Ferret Renner 2005. Contribuição ao conhecimento taxonômico de Apostolepis flavotorquata (Serpentes, Elapomorphinae). Biociências 13 (2): 163-175
  • Lema, Thales De & Márcia Ferret Renner 2011. A new species of Apostolepis (Serpentes, Colubridae, Elapomorphini), belonging to assimilis group, found in Brazilian Cerrado. Ciência em Movimento 13 (27): 71-76
  • Linares, Antônio Meira and Paula Cabral Eterovick 2013. Herpetofaunal Surveys Support Successful Reconciliation Ecology in Secondary and Human-Modified Habitats at the Inhotim Institute, Southeastern Brazil. Herpetologica 69 (2): 237-256. - get paper here
  • Martins, L.A. & Lema, T. de 2015. Elapomorphini (Serpentes, Xenodontinae) do Brasil sudoeste. Neotropical Biology and Conservation 10(2): 93-102; doi: 10.4013/nbc.2015.102.05
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • Reinhardt 1861. Herpetologiske Middelelser. II. Beskrivelser af nogle nye til Calamariernes Familie henhörende Slänger. Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. Foren. Kjöbenhavn 2 [1860]: 229-250 - get paper here
  • Santos, D.L.; S.P. Andrade; E.P. Victor-Jr.; W. Vaz-Silva 2014. Amphibians and reptiles from southeastern Goiás, Central Brazil. Check List 10 (1): 131-148 - get paper here
  • Silva, M.C. da, R.H. de Oliveira, D.H. Morais, R.A. Kawashita-Ribeiro, E.S. de Brito & R.W. Ávila 2015. Amphibians and reptiles of a Cerrado area in Primavera do Leste Municipality, Mato Grosso State, Central Brazil. Salamandra 51 (2): 187-194 - get paper here
  • Strauch,A. 1884. Bemerkungen über die Schlangengattung Elapomorphus aus der Familie der Calamariden. 2nd. Ed. Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg 29: 541-590 - get paper here
  • Torello-Viera, Natália F. and Otavio A.V. Marques 2017. Daily Activity of Neotropical Dipsadid Snakes South American J. Herp. 12 (2): 128-135. - get paper here
  • Vaz-Silva, W. et al. 2007. Herpetofauna, Espora Hydroelectric Power Plant, state of Goiás, Brazil. Check List 3 (4): 338-345 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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