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Apostolepis borellii PERACCA, 1904

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesPortuguese: Falsa-Coral 
SynonymApostolepis borellii PERACCA 1904: 9
Apostolepis borelli — AMARAL 30: 48
Apostolepis borelli — DE LEMA & RENNER 2006
Apostolepis borelli — WALLACH et al. 2014: 50
Apostolepis borelli — MARTINS & DE LEMA 2015
Apostolepis borellii — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionC Bolivia (Santa Cruz), SW Brazil (W Mato Grosso do Sul) 200–725 m elevaton

Type locality: “Urucum, Matto Grosso brasiliano” [= Maciço do Urucum, W Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, 19°12’S, 57°36’W, elevation 725 m]  
TypesHolotype: MRSN (also as MSNTO or MZUT) R962 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Similar to Apostolepis nigroterminata, differing from it by: slender body (vs. stocky), elongated head (vs. wide, short), slandering snout (vs. wide and rounded), head a little slender (vs. wide, high, wider than neck); background color brown (vs. reddish), black nuchal collar wide, reaching the gular region (vs. vestigial, not reaching gular region), tail extremity slandering, with conic tip (vs. stocky, rounded tip), tail blotch complete reaching DO and SC (vs. only dorsal, with white halo anteriorly), FR hexagonal (vs. almost pentagonal). The species inhabits a diverse ecosystem, the Cerrado, whereas A. nigroterminata is from the Amazon Forest (LEMA & RENNER 2016).

See also Martins & de Lema 2015: 96 for another description). 
CommentSynonymy: previously synonymized with Apostolepis nigroterminata by Harvey 1999, which resulted in the inclusion of A. nigroterminata in a former Brazilian list of reptiles (see Costa and Bérnils 2015).

However, Harvey’s (1999) analyzed the holotype of A. borellii (from Urucum massif, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil), one specimen collected at the confluence of Rio Araguaia and Tapirapé, Tapirapé Village, Mato Grosso do Sul (AMNH 87942) – that was subsequently re-identified as A. phillipsi by Martins and Lema (2015) – and several other specimens from Bolivia and Peru. Recently, Lema and Renner (2016) removed A. borellii from the synonymy of A. nigroterminata.

Distribution: Lema and Renner (2016) restricted the distribution of A. nigroterminata to some localities in Peru (Santos et al. 2018). See map in Nogueira et al. 2019. 
EtymologyNamed after the collector of the type, A. Borrelli. 
  • Amaral, A. do 1930. Estudos sobre ophidios neotropicos XVII. Valor systematico de varias formas de ophidios neotropicos. Mem. Inst. Butantan 4: 1-68 [1929] - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Lema, T. de & M. F. Renner 2016. Status of Apostolepis borellii Peracca 1904 (Serpentes, Xenodontinae), with restriction of the A. nigroterminata concept. Neotropical Biology and Conservation 11(2):62-71, doi: 10.4013/nbc.2016.112.02 - get paper here
  • Lema, T. de & Renner, M.F. 2006. A new species of Apostolepis with striped pattern from Mato Grosso, Brasil (Serpentes, Elapomorphine). Ciência em movimento 8: 13-18
  • Lema, Thales and Patrick Campbell 2017. New Species of Apostolepis (Serpentes, Dipsadinae, Elapomorphini) from Bolivia, from the Apostolepis borellii Group. Research & Reviews: Journal of Zoological Sciences 5 (1): 19- - get paper here
  • Martins, L.A. & Lema, T. de 2015. Elapomorphini (Serpentes, Xenodontinae) do Brasil sudoeste. Neotropical Biology and Conservation 10(2): 93-102; doi: 10.4013/nbc.2015.102.05 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Peracca, M.G. 1904. Viaggio del Dr. A. Borelli nel Matto Grosso brasiliano e nel Paraguay, 1899. IX. Rettili ed amfibii. Boll. Mus. Zool. Univ. Torino 19 (460): 1-15
  • Santos FM dos, Entiauspe-Neto OM, Araújo JS, de Souza MB, de Lema T, Strussmann C, de Albuquerque NR 2018. A new species of burrowing snake (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Apostolepis) from the state of Mato Grosso, Central-West region of Brazil. Zoologia 35: 1-10 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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