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Aspidoscelis exsanguis (LOWE, 1956)

IUCN Red List - Aspidoscelis exsanguis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesChihuahuan Spotted Whiptail 
SynonymCnemidophorus sacki exsanguis LOWE 1956
Cnemidophorus costatus exsanguis — MASLIN 1962: 212 (part.)
Cnemidophorus exsanguis — STEBBINS 1985: 157
Cnemidophorus exsanguis — MASLIN & SECOY 1986
Cnemidophorus exsanguis — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 120
Cnemidophorus exsanguis — LINER 1994
Aspidoscelis exsanguis — REEDER et al. 2002
Aspidoscelis exsanguis — COOPER et al. 2005
Aspidoscelis exsanguis — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009 
DistributionUSA (SE Arizona, New Mexico, SW Texas),
Mexico (N Chihuahua, NE Sonora); elevation 760-2440 m.

Type locality: “Socorro, Socorro County, New Mexico”. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
ReproductionThis species originated through hybridization involving 3 species: C. inornatus, C. septemvittatus, and C. costatus (fide STEBBINS 1985). Parthenogenetic species. Lutes et al. (2011) report the generation of four self-sustaining clonal lineages of a tetraploid species resulting from fertilization of triploid oocytes from a parthenogenetic Aspidoscelis exsanguis with haploid sperm from Aspidoscelis inornata. 
TypesHolotype: UAZ, University of Arizona, UAA 16188 (formerly Unlverslty of California, Los Angeles, Dept. of Zoology 3737), collected by Richard Zweifel and Kenneth S. norris, 10 Aug 1948. 
CommentBefore LOWE described Cnemidophorus sacki exsanguis, specimens of it have been assigned to Cnemidophorus gularis, C. sexlineatus, or C. sackii. 
EtymologyThe name exsanguis (Latin, “without blood”), referes to the distinct difference between this species and C. burti stictogrammus, with which it was formerly inlcuded. 
  • Bartlett, R. D. & Bartlett, P. 1999. A Field Guide to Texas Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas, 331 pp.
  • Bateman, Heather L. and Alice Chung-MacCoubrey. 2013. Aspidoscelis exsanguis (Chihuahuan spotted whiptail), Aspidoscelis neomexicana (New Mexico whiptail), Aspidoscelis uniparens (desert grassland whiptail) bifurcated tails. Herpetological Review 44 (4): 663
  • Bateman, Heather L.; Howard L. Snell, Alice Chung-MacCoubrey, and Deborah M. Finch 2010. Growth, Activity, and Survivorship from Three Sympatric Parthenogenic Whiptails (Family Teiidae). Journal of Herpetology 44 (2): 301–306 - get paper here
  • Bezy, Robert L. and Charles J. Cole 2014. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Madrean Archipelago of Arizona and New Mexico. American Museum Novitates (3810): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.; Harry L. Taylor, and Carol R. Townsend 2015. Morphological Variation in a Unisexual Whiptail Lizard (Aspidoscelis exsanguis) and One of Its Bisexual Parental Species (Aspidoscelis inornata) (Reptilia: Squamata: Teiidae): Is the Clonal Species Less Variable? American Museum Novitates 3849: 1-20 [Feb 2016] - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.; Harry L. Taylor, Diana P. Baumann, and Peter Baumann 2014. Neaves' Whiptail Lizard: The First Known Tetraploid Parthenogenetic Tetrapod (Reptilia: Squamata: Teiidae). Breviora (539): 1-20 - get paper here
  • Collins, J.T. and <br />T. W. Taggart 2009. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Sixth Edition. Center for North American Herpetology, 48 pp.
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cooper Jr., W.E. 2008. Strong Artifactual Effect of Starting Distance on Flight Initiation Distance in the Actively Foraging Lizard Aspidoscelis exsanguis. Herpetologica 64 (2): 200-206 - get paper here
  • Cooper Jr., W.E.; Vitt, L.J.; Caldwell, J.P. & Fox, S.F. 2005. Relationships among foraging variables, phylogeny, and foraging modes, with new data for nine North American lizard species. Herpetologica 61 (3): 250-259 - get paper here
  • Cordes, James E. and James M. Walker 2006. Evolutionary and Systematic Implications of Skin Histocompatibility Among Parthenogenetic Teiid Lizards: Three Color Pattern Classes of Aspidoscelis dixoni and One of Aspidoscelis tesselata. Copeia, 2006 (1):14-26 - get paper here
  • Cordes, James E. and James M. Walker. 2016. Aspidoscelis exsanguis (Chihuahuan Spotted Whiptail) Maximum body size. Herpetological Review 47 (2): 294-295
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Degenhardt, William G.; C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. Univ. New Mexico Press, 431 pp.
  • Dessauer, H. C.;Cole, C. J. 1986. Clonal inheritance in parthenogenetic whiptail lizards: Biochemical evidence. Journal of Heredity 77: 8-12
  • Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
  • Duellman, W. E., & ZWEIFEL, R. G. 1962. A synopsis of the lizards of the sexlineatus group (genus Cnemidophorus). Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 123: 155-210.
  • Good, D. A.;Wright, J. W. 1984. Allozymes and the hybrid origin of the parthenogenetic lizard Cnemidophorus exsanguis. Experientia 40: 1012-1014
  • Hardy, Laurence M. and Charles J. Cole 1998. Morphology of a Sterile, Tetraploid, Hybrid Whiptail Lizard (Squamata: Teiidae: Cnemidophorus). American Museum Novitates 3228: 16 pp. - get paper here
  • Jones, K.B.; Abbas, D.R. & Bergstedt, T. 1981. Herpetological records from Central and Northeastern Arizona. Herpetological Review 12 (1): 16 - get paper here
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A., David Chiszar, and Hobart M. Smith 2004. Selected Records of 2003 Lizards from Chihuahua and Sonora, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 39 (9): 164-168
  • Lowe, Charles H. & Wright, John W. 1964. Species of the Cnemidophorus exsanguis subgroup of whiptail lizards. Journal of the Arizona Academy of Science 3 (2): 78-80 - get paper here
  • Lowe, Charles H., Jr 1956. A new species and a new subspecies of whiptail lizards (genus Cnemidophorus) of the Inland Southwest. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 10 (9): 137-150
  • Lutes AA, Baumann DP, Neaves WB, Baumann P. 2011. Laboratory synthesis of an independently reproducing vertebrate species. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 108(24):9910-5 - get paper here
  • Maslin, T. & Secoy, D.M. 1986. A checklist of the lizard genus Cnemidophorus (Teiidae). Contr. Zool. Univ. Colorado Mus. 1: 1-60
  • Moritz, Craig C.;Wright, John W.;Brown, Wesley M. 1989. Mitochondrial-DNA analysis and the origin and relative age of parthenogenetic lizards (Genus Cnemidophorus). III. C. velox and C. exsanguis. Evolution 43 (5): 958-968 - get paper here
  • Paulissen, M. A., J. M. Walker, G. C. Carpenter, A. L. Fitzgerald and L. K. Kamees 2016. Aspidoscelis exsanguis (Chihuahuan Spotted Whiptail) diet. Herpetological Review 47(3): 461.
  • REEDER, T.W.; CHARLES J. COLE AND HERBERT C. DESSAUER 2002. Phylogenetic Relationships of Whiptail Lizards of the Genus Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae): A Test of Monophyly, Reevaluation of Karyotypic Evolution, and Review of Hybrid Origins. American Museum Novitates 3365: 1-64 - get paper here
  • Rocha, Arturo, Vicente Mata-Silva and Jerry D. Johnson. 2013. Aspidoscelis exsanguis (Chihuahuan spotted whiptail) feeding behavior. Herpetological Review 44 (4): 663
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Stuart J N 1991. Cnemidophorus exsanguis Lowe. Chihuahuan spotted whiptail lizard. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 516: 1-4 - get paper here
  • Stuart, James N. 1993. Cnemidophorus exsanguis (Chihuahuan Spotted Whiptail). USA: New Mexico. Herpetological Review 24 (2): 66 - get paper here
  • Van Devender, Thomas R.;Lowe, Charles H. Lowe, Jr. 1977. Amphibians and reptiles of Yepomera, Chihuahua, Mexico. Journal of Herpetology 11 (1): 41-50 - get paper here
  • Walker, James M. and James E. Cordes. 2015. Natural hybridization of triploid normally parthenogenetic Aspidoscelis exsanguis with gonochoristic A. inorata (Squamata:Teiidae) and identity of an associated specimen. Herpetological Review 46 (1): 8-11
  • Walker, James M. and Julio A. Lemo-Espinal. 2015. Aspidoscelis exsanguis (Chihuahuan spotted whiptail) life history in Mexico. Herpetological Review 46 (2): 251-252
  • Walker, James M.; Geoffrey C. Carpenter, Austin L. Fitzgerald, Larry K. Kamees, and James E. Cordes 2015. Extreme variant of the triploid parthenogenetic lizard Aspidoscelis exsanguis (Squamata: Teiidae) from New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist Sep 2014, Vol. 59, No. 3: 419-423. - get paper here
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