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Asthenodipsas jamilinaisi QUAH, GRISMER, LIM, ANUAR & IMBUN, 2019

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Higher TaxaPareidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Sabah Mountain Slender Slug Snake 
SynonymAsthenodipsas jamilinaisi QUAH, GRISMER, LIM, ANUAR & IMBUN 2019
Amblycephalus laevis — BOULENGER 1896: 441 & 442 (in part)
Amblycephalus laevis — DE ROOIJ 1917: 276
Pareas laevis — HAILE 1958: 766 (in part)
Asthenodipsas laevis — DAS 2010: 344
Asthenodipsas vertebralis — STUEBING et al. 2014: 82
Internatus laevis — MALKMUS et al. 2002: 343
Pareas laevis — STUEBING 1991: 330 & 331 (in part)
Pareas laevis — STUEBING & INGER 1999: 87 (in part)
Pareas vertebralis — STUEBING & INGER 1999: 87 (in part)
Asthenodipsas (Asthenodipsas) jamilinaisi — POYARKOV et al. 2022 
DistributionEast Malaysia (Borneo: Sabah)

Type locality: Mount Trusmadi, Tambunan, Sabah, East Malaysia (estimated: N 5.552776, E 116.516667, 2612 m a.s.l.).  
TypesHolotype. SP 04076, adult male, collected by Paul Yambun Imbun and other unspecified members of Sabah Parks on 14 May 1991. Paratypes. Juvenile male (ZRC 2.2742) collected by F.N. Chasen and H.M. Pendlebury in May 1929 from Marei Parei, Mount Kinabalu, Sabah, East Malaysia (estimated: N 6.080644, E 116.519022, 1668 m a.s.l.). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Morphological examination of the type series determined their placement in the genus Asthenodip- sas owing to their possession of smooth dorsal scales; absence of preoculars and suboculars; one or more supralabi- als in contact with the eye; a single anterior inframaxillary, followed by two or three pairs of inframaxillaries which are wider than long (Grossmann & Tillack 2003)—character states that diagnose Asthenodipsas from other genera of the family Pareidae. Asthenodipsas jamilinaisi sp. nov. can be differentiated from its congeners by the following combination of characters: a maximum SVL of 378 mm; 15/15/15 dorsal scale rows; 173–175 ventrals (males); 52–53 subcaudal scales (male); postoculars; 1–2(+0–1)+2 temporals; 6–7 supralabials, 3rd & 4th touching the eye; 5–6 infralabials, 3rd pair in contact; a sharp vertebral keel; dorsum of adults dark-brown with 44–48 indistinct dark bands that are more prominent on the lower dorsal rows along the flanks and extend onto the corners of the ventrals; chin & throat dark-brown; ventrals cream to light-yellow; and iris and pupils black (Tables 4–6; Fig. 4 & 5 in Quah et al. 2019).

Comparison. Asthenodipsas jamilinaisi sp. nov. can be differentiated from Aplopeltura boa by its higher num- ber of mid-dorsal scale rows (15 vs. 13) and divided subcaudals (de Rooij 1917; Grossmann & Tillack 2003; Stuebing et al. 2014). Asthenodipsas jamilinaisi sp. nov. can be differentiated from members of the genus Pareas by its possession of preocular and subocular scales (absent vs. present), supralabials in contact with orbit (3rd & 4th contact orbit vs. no supralabials in contact with orbit) and anterior single inframaxillary (present vs. absent) (Gross- mann & Tillack 2003). Asthenodipsas lasgalenensis, A. tropidonotus and A. vertebralis can be differentiated from A. jamilinaisi sp. nov. by their possession of more pairs of posterior inframaxillaries (three vs. two) and pairs of infralabials in contact (1st vs. 3rd). In addition, A. vertebralis and A. tropidonotus can be differentiated A. jamilinaisi sp. nov. by their higher number of ventrals (195–215 vs. 173–175) (Loredo et al. 2013). A. jamilinaisi sp. nov. can be differentiated from A. malaccana by its lower number of supralabials (6 vs. 7–8) and colour pattern (dark dorsum with indistinct banding vs. light-grey to brown body with distinct banding or blotches and a prominent dark patch on the neck) (Chan-ard et al. 2015; Das 2010; de Rooij 1917; Stuebing et al. 2014). Asthenodipsas jamilinaisi sp. nov. can be distinguished from A. laevis by its larger adult length, (max SVL 378 mm vs. 373 mm), higher number of ventral scales (173–175 vs. 148–173), dorsal scales rows (15/15/15 vs. 15/15/13) and sharp vertebral keel (pres- ent vs. absent) (Figs. 4E & 4F) (Tables 3–6). A. jamilinaisi sp. nov. can be differentiated from A. stuebingi sp. nov. by its higher number of subcaudals (52–53 vs. 35–47), higher number of ventrals in males (173–175 vs. 165), size of vertebral scales (greatly enlarged vs. slightly enlarged), colour pattern (dark overall colouration of dorsum with indistinct banding vs. light-coloured head and dorsum with a dark neck patch and distinct bands) and body form (gracile and laterally compressed vs. robust and stout) (Tables 3–6). A key to the family Pareidae of Borneo is pre- sented below. 
CommentHabitat: montane; only been found from 1500 to 2500 m a.s.l. in Sabah.

Behavior: nocturnal 
EtymologyThe specific epithet jamilinaisi is a patronym in honour of Dr. Jamili Nais, the Director of Sabah Parks for his contributions to the research and conservation of biodiversity in the state and the first Malaysian to be appointed as a member of the World Heritage panel of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Das, I. 2010. A Field Guide to the Reptiles of Southeast Asia. New Holland, London. 376 pp. [book review in Sauria 33 (3): 51, and Russ. J. Herp. 18: 325] - get paper here
  • de Rooij, N. DE 1917. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Il. Ophidia. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 334 S. - get paper here
  • Fukuyama R, Fukuyama I, Kurita T, Kojima Y, Hossman MY, Noda A, Nishikawa K 2021. New herpetofaunal records from Gunung Mulu National Park and its surrounding areas in Borneo. Herpetozoa 34: 89-96 - get paper here
  • Haile, N.S. 1958. The snakes of Borneo, with a key to the species. Sarawak Mus., Kuching, J. 8: 743-771.
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  • Poyarkov NA, Nguyen TV, Pawangkhanant P, Yushchenko PV, Brakels P, Nguyen LH, Nguyen HN, Suwannapoom C, Orlov N, Vogel G. 2022. An integrative taxonomic revision of slug-eating snakes (Squamata: Pareidae: Pareineae) reveals unprecedented diversity in Indochina. PeerJ 10: e12713 - get paper here
  • Quah, Evan S H; Kelvin K P Lim, L Lee Grismer 2021. On the taxonomic status of Asthenodipsas vertebralis (Boulenger, 1900) (Squamata: Pareidae) in Borneo with the description of a new species. Zootaxa 4949 (1): 24–44 - get paper here
  • QUAH, EVAN S.H.; L. LEE GRISMER, KELVIN K.P. LIM, M.S. SHAHRUL ANUAR, & PAUL Y. IMBUN 2019. A taxonomic reappraisal of the Smooth Slug Snake Asthenodipsas laevis (Boie, 1827) (Squamata: Pareidae) in Borneo with the description of two new species. Zootaxa 4646 (3): 501–526 - get paper here
  • Stuebing, R.B. 1991. A checklist of the snakes of Borneo. Raffles Bull. Zool. 39(2): 323-362. - get paper here
  • Stuebing, R.B. & INGER, R.F. 1999. A field guide to the snakes of Borneo. Natural history Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, 254 pp. [corrections in HR 31: 124]. - get paper here
  • Stuebing, R.B., Inger, R.F. & Lardner, B. 2014. A field guide to the snakes of Borneo, second edition. Natural history Publications (Borneo)
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