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Atractus dapsilis MELO-SAMPAIO, PASSOS, FOUQUET, COSTA-PRUDENTE & TORRES-CARVAJAL, 2019

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymAtractus dapsilis MELO-SAMPAIO, PASSOS, FOUQUET, COSTA-PRUDENTE & TORRES-CARVAJAL 2019
Atractus badius var. E — BOULENGER 1894: 309
Atractus schach — MARTINS & OLIVEIRA 1993: 32, fig. 4d, 6b
Atractus schach — MARTINS & OLIVEIRA 1998: 97, plate 22
Atractus schach — FRAGA et al., 2013: 158
Atractus schach — MORATO et al. 2014: 93
Atractus schach — MORATO et al. 2018: 10
Atractus snethlageae — ZIMMERMAN & RODRIGUES 1990
Atractus snethlageae — MARTINS & OLIVEIRA 1993: 34, fig. 4e, 6c
Atractus snethlageae — MARTINS & OLIVEIRA 1998: 97, plate 23
Atractus snethlageae — FRAGA et al. 2013: 160
Atractus snethlageae — MORATO et al. 2014: 94
Atractus snethlageae — MORATO et al. 2018: 10
Atractus snethlageae — SCHARGEL et al. 2013: 465 
DistributionBrazil (Para, Amazonas)

Type locality: Platô Teofilo, Flona Saraca-Taquera (1°42' 51.6" S, 56°24' 34.0" W), alt. 97 m asl, Oriximina, Para, Brazil.  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: MNRJ 14914, adult male: coll. E. G. Pereira and team, 1 February 2007.
Paratypes. All adult females from Brazil: PARA: Oriximina MNRJ 14913: coll. E. G. Pereira and team, 30 January 2007. MNRJ 14915: coll. E. G. Pereira and team, 30 January 2007. MNRJ 16799: coll. R. R. Pinto and team, 19 March 2008. MNRJ 16801: coll. R. R. Pinto and team, 20 March 2008. MNRJ 16802: coll. R. R. Pinto and team, 30 June 2008. MNRJ 16803: coll. R. R. Pinto and team, 1 June 2008. MPEG 23759: coll. F. L. Trein, 12 August 2009. MPEG 21570: coll. R. R. Carvalho Jr., 20 May 2006. IBSP 87633: coll. S. Morato, 1 March 2014. MNRJ 16796: coll. R. R. Pinto and team, 8 March 2008. Terra Santa INPA-H 31489: coll. Unknown, 2 August 2011. Amazonas: Manaus MZUSP 3713 coll. K. Lenko, September 1962 (307'00.0"S, 6000'00.0"W) atl. 42m asl. Rio Preto da Eva MZUSP 8659 coll. B. Zimmerman, 1985, Reserva 41 – INPA/ WWF (225'00.0"S, 5943'00.0"W) alt. 81m asl. Presidente Figueredo MPEG 17426 coll. Rescue Team, 26 January 1988. MPEG 17427 coll. S^onia, 27 January 1988; MPEG 17539 coll. Rescue Team, 11 May 1988. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Atractus dapsilis is distinguished from all congeners by the combination of the following characters: (1) smooth dorsal scale rows 17/17/17; (2) postoculars two; (3) loreal long; (4) temporal formula 1 þ 2; (5) supralabials seven, third and fourth contacting eye; (6) infralabials eight, first four contacting chinshields; (7) six or seven maxillary teeth; (8) gular scale rows three; (9) preventrals three; (10) ventrals 167–182 in females, 152–166 in males; (11) subcaudals 21–26 in females, 30–37 in males; (12) in preservative, dorsum beige to pale brown with a series of dark brown regular bands (21–40 in females, 19–32 in males), some of which are in contact dorsomedially or black with pale bands (morphotype more frequent in males); (13) in preservative, venter pale cream with brown dots forming an inconspicuous midventral line; (14) moderate body size in females (maximum 500mm SVL) and in males (maximum 360mm SVL); (15) small tail in females (7.3–10% SVL), moderately long in males (13.3–17.6% SVL); (16) hemipenis strongly bilobed, semicapitate, and semicaliculate.

Comparisons. A. dapsilis differs from A. aboiporu, A. elaps, A. latifrons, A. insipidus, and A. trilineatus by having 17 dorsal scales rows (vs. 15 dorsals). Regarding species with 17 dorsal scales rows, Atractus dapsilis differs from A. badius in its dorsal colouration being uniformly black with reddish bands or cinnamon with dark bands (Fig. 4), its ventral colouration with scattered brown spots and <38 subcaudals in males (vs. dorsum with black dyads separated by cream bands; belly immaculate anteriorly, followed by square black spots posteriorly; >40 subcaudals in males); differs from A. favae by having contact between first pair of infralabials and chinshields and moderate tail <20% SVL (vs. first pair of infralabials separated from chinshields by first pair of infralabials and tail >22% SVL in A. favae); from A. flammigerus by lacking keels on the dorsal scales and seven supralabials (vs. keels on the dorsal scales and eight supralabials in A. flammigerus); from A. torquatus by having two postoculars (vs. one in A. torquatus from GS; Passos and Prudente 2012); from A. zidoki by having smooth dorsal scales without apical pits, six or seven maxillary teeth and bilobed hemipenis (vs. dorsal scales with apical pits, four or five maxillary teeth and unilobed hemipenis in A. zidoki); from A. snethlageae by having 167–182 ventrals in females, 152–166 in males; tail 7–10% SVL in females, 13.6–17.4% SVL in males (vs. 147–160 ventrals in females, 137–155 in males; 8.3–11.3% SVL in females, 13.3–16% SVL in males of A. snethlageae). Atractus dapsilis is closely related (Fig. 1) and morphologically similar to A. schach (at least, the pale morph). However, A. dapsilis is distinguished from A. schach by having 300–451 mm SVL in females and 250–360 mm SVL in males, and more than 152 ventrals in both sexes (vs. maximum SVL 275mm, < 151 ventrals in both sexes in A. schach). 
Comment 
EtymologyThe specific epithet 'dapsilis' is a neuter Latin adjective meaning abundant or bountiful, in reference for the relative local abundance of the new species, which unlike many other congeners is described based on a large sample size. 
References
  • Fraga, R., Lima, A. P., Prudente, A. L. C., & Magnusson, W. E. 2013. Guia de cobras da região de Manaus – Amazônia Central. Manaus: INPA
  • Martins M. & Oliveira M E. 1993. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil. Zoologische Mededelingen 67 (1-26): 21-40. - get paper here
  • Martins, M. & Oliveira, M.E. 1998. Natural history of snakes in forests of the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil. Herpetological Natural History 6: 78-150 - get paper here
  • Melo-Sampaio, Paulo Roberto; Paulo Passos, Antoine Fouquet, Ana Lucia Da Costa Prudente & Omar Torres-Carvajal 2019. Systematic review of Atractus schach (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) species complex from the Guiana Shield with description of three new species. Systematics and Biodiversity, 17:3, 207-229, DOI: 10.1080/14772000.2019.1611674 - get paper here
  • Morato, S.A.A.; Calixto, P.O.; Mendes, L.R.; Gomes, R.; Galatti, U.; Trein, F.L.; Oliveira, F.S.; Ferreira, G.N. 2014. Guia fotográfico de identificação da herpetofauna da Floresta Nacional de Saracá-Taquera, Estado do Pará. Curitiba: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A.; 213 p. - get paper here
  • Morato, Sérgio Augusto Abrahão; Guilherme Nunes Ferreira; Michela Rossane Cavilha Scupino (eds.) 2018. Herpetofauna da Amazônia Central: Estudos na FLONA de Saracá-Taquera. Curitiba, Pr: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas, Pa: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A., 2018.<br />210p. - get paper here
  • SCHARGEL, WALTER E.; WILLIAM W. LAMAR, PAULO PASSOS, JORGE H. VALENCIA, DIEGO F. CISNEROS-HEREDIA, JONATHAN A. CAMPBELL 2013. A new giant Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from Ecuador, with notes on some other large Amazonian congeners. Zootaxa 3721 (5): 455–474 - get paper here
  • Zimmerman, B.L., & Rodrigues, M.T. 1990. Frogs, snakes and lizards of the INPA-WWF reserves near Manaus, Brazil. ln A. H. Gentry (Ed.), Four neotropical rainforests (pp. 426–454). New Haven, CT: Yale University
 
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