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Atractus fuliginosus (HALLOWELL, 1845)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Hallowell's Ground Snake 
SynonymColuber fuliginosus HALLOWELL 1845: 243
Rhabdosoma univittatum JAN 1862: 15
Rabdosoma univittatum — JAN 1865
Atractus fuliginosus — ROZE 1958: 3
Atractus univittatus — ROZE 1961: 117
Atractus fuliginosus — ROZE 1966: 81
Atractus fuliginosus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 29
Atractus cf univittatus — HOOGMOED 1980
Atractus univittatus — MURPHY 1997
Atractus univittatus — KORNACKER 1999: 67
Atractus fuliginosus — KORNACKER 1999: 64
Atractus univittatus — ESQUEDA & LA MARCA 2005
Atractus fuliginosus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 73
Atractus univittatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 83
Atractus univittatus — PEDROZA-BANDA et al. 2014
Atractus univittatus — HEDGES et al. 2019
Atractus fuliginosa — RIVAS et al. 2021 
DistributionN Venezuela, Tobago

Type locality: 200 miles of Caracas, Venezuela.

univittatus: Venezuela (Distrito Federal, Miranda, Aragua, Barina, Carabobo, Cojedes, Yaracuy, Portuguesa), Tobago, Colombia (Meta); Type locality: Caracas, Distrito Federal, Venezuela  
TypesHolotype: ANSP 3333
Holotype: ZMH, a 300 mm specimen [univittatus] 
DiagnosisOriginal description: “Head small, depressed, covered like the rest of this genus with nine plates; the rostral plate is of moderate size, incurvated below, rounded superiorly; there are two anterior and two posterior frontal plates, the former are quite small, the latter much the larger, they are quadrangular ; the vertical plate is small, hexagonal, broadest in front, more extended in the lateral than the longitudal direction; there are two occipital plates which are larger than either of the others; the supra-orbitar plates are quadrangular; there are two posterior orbitar plates, and there is no ant-ocular plate the loral plate extends backwards as far as the eye; there are two nasal plates, with the nostril placed between them ; there are six superior labial plates, the sixth is the largest; the eyes are small and slightly projecting ; the neck is slender; the body of mode rate size, covered with smooth quadrangular scales: the tail is tapering.

Colour: Body and tail dark brown; upper part of head and sides brown as far as the inferior margin of the orbit; irides--; upper jaw, chin, throat, under parts of abdomen and tail, light straw colour-the latter mottled with brown.

Abdominal scuta 158 : subcaudal 28.

This species very much resembles the C. fuscus, for the young of which it might be taken; it differs from it, however, in the form of the head, which is much more depressed, and in the arrangement and form of its plates; the tail also is much shorter.” (Hallowell 1845, plus dimensions, not given here) 
CommentSynonymy after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970 and NATERA-MUMAW et al. 2015. 
EtymologyNamed after the Latin adjective “fuliginosus” meaning brown or dark brown colouration. 
  • Esqueda, L.F. & E. La Marca 2005. Revisión taxonómica y biogeográfica (con descripción de cinco nuevas especies) de serpientes del género Atractus (Colubridae: Dipsadinae) en los Andes de Venezuela. Herpetotropicos 2 (1): 1-32 - get paper here
  • Esqueda, L.F., E. La Marca & S. Bazó. 2007. Un nuevo colúbrido semifosorial del género Atractus (Dipsadinae) de la vertiente lacustre de los Andes de Venezuela. Herpetotropicos 2 (2): 87-93 [2005] - get paper here
  • Hallowell, E. 1845. Descriptions of reptiles from South America, supposed to be new. Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philad., 2: 241-247 - get paper here
  • Hoogmoed, M. S. 1980. Revision of the genus Atractus in Surinam, with the ressurection of two species (Colubridae, Reptilia). Notes on the Herpetofauna of Surinam VII. Zoologische Verhandelingen (175): 1-47 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1862. Enumerazione sistematico delle specie d'ofidi del gruppo Calamaridae. Arch. Zool., Anat. Fisiol., 2: 1-76. - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 11. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Kornacker,P.M. 1999. Checklist and key to the snakes of Venezuela. PaKo-Verlag, Rheinbach, Germany, 270 pp.
  • Lancini,A.R. & Kornacker,P.M. 1989. Die Schlangen von Venezuela. Armitano Editores C.A., Caracas, 1-381
  • Markezich, A.L. 2002. New distribution records of reptiles from Western Venezuela. Herpetological Review 33 (1): 69-74 - get paper here
  • Murphy, J.C. 1997. Amphibians & Reptiles of Trinidad & Tobago. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida, 304 pp. [book review in Salamandra 36 (2): 142]
  • MURPHY, JOHN C. et al. 2021. The Rediscovery of Hallowell’s Ground Snake, Atractus fuliginosus, on Tobago with Notes on its Natural History. Herpetological Review 52 (3): 488–492
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela. Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Passos, P. & Fernandes, R. 2008. A new species of the colubrid snake genus Atractus (Reptilia: Serpentes) from the central Amazon of Brazil. Zootaxa 1849: 59–66 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., R. Fernandes and Borges-Nojosa, D.M. 2007. A New Species of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadinae) from a Relictual Forest in Northeastern Brazil. Copeia 2007 (4): 788–797 - get paper here
  • Passos, Paulo; Philippe J. R. Kok, Nelson R. de Albuquerque, and Gilson A. Rivas 2013. Groundsnakes of the Lost World: A Review of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from the Pantepui Region, Northern South America. Herpetological Monographs 27 (1): 52-86 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Rivas Fuenmayor, Gilson and Cesar Luis Barrio Amorós 2005. New Amphibian and Reptile records from Cojedes State, Venezuela. Herpetological Review 36 (2):205-209. - get paper here
  • Rivas, G. A., Lasso-Alcalá, O. M., Rodríguez-Olarte, D., De Freitas, M., Murphy, J. C., Pizzigalli, C., ... & Jowers, M. J. 2021. Biogeographical patterns of amphibians and reptiles in the northernmost coastal montane complex of South America. Plos one, 16(3): e0246829 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Roze, J. A. 1958. On Hallowell's type specimens of reptiles from Venezuela in the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. [type catalogue] Notulae Naturae (309): 1-4
  • Roze, J. A. 1966. La Taxonomía y Zoogeografla de los Ofidios de Venezuela. Univ. Central Venezuela, 362 pp.
  • Roze, Jánis A. 1961. El genero Atractus (Serpentes: Colubridae) en Venezuela. Acta Biologica Venezuelica 3 (7): 103-119
  • Schargel, W.E. & Castoe, T.A. 2003. The hemipenes of some snakes of the semifossorial genus Atractus, with comments on variation in the genus. Journal of Herpetology 37 (4): 718-781 - get paper here
  • Señaris, J. Celsa; María Matilde Aristeguieta Padrón, Haidy Rojas Gil y Fernando J. M. Rojas-Runjaic 2018. Guía ilustrada de los anfibios y reptiles del valle de Caracas, Venezuela. Ediciones IVIC, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC). Caracas, Venezuela. 348 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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