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Atractus reticulatus (BOULENGER, 1885)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesE: Reticulate Ground Snake 
SynonymGeophis reticulatus BOULENGER 1885: 87
Geophis reticulatus — BOULENGER 1886: 430
Atractus reticulatus — BOULENGER 1894: 311
Atractus reticulatus — PETERS et al. 1970: 33
Atractus reticulatus scrocchii ALVAREZ et al. 1992
Atractus reticulatus — PASSOS et al. 2005
Atractus reticulatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 79
Atractus reticulatus — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionParaguay, S Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná, São Paulo), Argentina (Corrientes, Misiones ?), Uruguay [HR 35: 189]

Type locality: São Lourenço, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.2.7
Holotype: UNNE-CHC 00256, collected by B.B. Alvarez and L. Rey 28 Dec 1991 [scrocchii] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Atractus reticulatus is distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) 15/15/15 smooth dorsal scale rows; (2) two postoculars; (3) loreal moderate; (4) temporals 1+2; (5) seven supralabials, third and fourth contacting orbit; (6) six or seven infralabials, first four contacting chinshields; (7) six to eight maxillary teeth; (8) usually three gular scale rows; (9) usually three preventrals; (10) 149–165 ventrals in females, 130–151 in males; (11) 19–30 subcaudals in females, 24–34 in males; (12) dorsum ground colour dark grayish brown or black, reticulating with pale colour; (13) venter immaculate creamish white; (14) moderate body size, females reaching 390 mm SVL, males 279 mm SVL; (15) tail short to moderate in females (7.8–13.5% SVL), short to long (7.9–17.1% SVL) in males; (16) moderately bilobed, semicapitate, and semicalyculate hemipenis [from Passos et al. 2010]. 
CommentSynonymy: most recent authors treat Atractus reticulatus scrocchii as a synonym of Atractus reticulatus (e.g. Carreira et al. 2005, Wallach et al. 2014, Cacciali et al. 2016).

Distribution: not in Colombia (Passos et al. 2010), although some sources erroneously list it for Colombia (e.g. Pérez-Santos & Moreno 1988). 
  • Alvarez B B. Rey L. Cei J M. 1992. A new subspecies of the Reticulatus group, genus Atractus, from southeastern South America (Serpentes, Colubridae). MUSEO REGIONALE DI SCIENZE NATURALI BOLLETTINO (TURIN). 10 (2): 249-256.
  • Bérnils, R.S.; Batista, M.A. & Bertelli, P.W. 2001. Cobras e lagartos do Vale: levantamento das espécies de Squamata (Reptilia, Lepidosauria) da Bacia do Rio Itajai, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Rev. Est. Ambientais (Blumenau) 3 (1): 69-79
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1885. Second list of reptiles and batrachians from the province Rio Grande do Sul, sent to the Natural History Museum by Dr. H. van Ihering. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 16: 85-88 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1886. A synopsis of the reptiles and batrachians of the province Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 18: 423-445 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Cacciali, P.; Villalba, R. & Yanosky, A.A. 2007. A NEW SPECIES OF ATRACTUS (SERPENTES:COLUBRIDAE: DIPSADINAE) FROM THE ATLANTIC FOREST OF ALTO PARANÁ, PARAGUAY. South American J. Herp. 2 (2): 83-88 - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist. SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • CARREIRA, S., M. MENEGHEL AND F. ACHAVAL 2005. Reptiles de Uruguay. DI.R.A.C., Facultad de Ciências Ed., Montevideo, 637 pp.
  • Carreira, S.; Brazeiro, A.; Camargo, A.; da Rosa, I.; Canavero, A. & Maneyro, M. 2012. DIVERSITY OF REPTILES OF URUGUAY: KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION GAPS. Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2a época) 21 (1-2): 9-29 - get paper here
  • Carreira, Santiago; Ignacio Lombardo & Federico Achaval-Coppes. 2012. NUEVOS REGISTROS DE OFIDIOS POCO CONOCIDOS EN URUGUAY (REPTILIA: SQUAMATA: SERPENTES). Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2a época) 21 (1-2): 70-74 - get paper here
  • Dainesi, Raiane Lesley Santos; Arthur Diesel Abegg, Paulo Sérgio Bernarde, Bruno Peña Correa, Laís Pio Caetano Machado, Afonso Santiago de Oliveira Meneses, Arthur de Sena Santos 2019. Integrative overview of snake species from Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil. Herpetology Notes 12: 419-430 - get paper here
  • Lucchesi Balestrin, R. & Di-Bernardo, M. 2005. Reproductive biology of Atractus reticulatus (BOULENGER 1885) (Serpentes, Colubridae) in Southern Brazil. The Herpetological Journal 15: 195-199
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo,<br />Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins,<br />Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz0, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisnero 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Outeiral, Arlete B.; Rafael L. Balestrin, Lize H. Cappellari, Thales de Lema, Vanda Lúcia Ferreira 2018. Snake assemblage from Serra do Sudeste, Pampa Biome in Southern Brazil. Herpetology Notes 11: 733-745 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., R. Fernandes and Borges-Nojosa, D.M. 2007. A New Species of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadinae) from a Relictual Forest in Northeastern Brazil. Copeia 2007 (4): 788–797 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., R. Fernandes and N. Zanella 2005. A new species of Atractus (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Southern Brazil. Herpetologica 61 (2): 209-218 - get paper here
  • Passos, P.; Fernandes, R.; Bernils, R.S. & Moura-Leite, J.C. de 2010. Taxonomic revision of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Atractus (Reptilia: Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Zootaxa 2364: 1–63 - get paper here
  • Passos, Paulo; Altagratia Chiesse, Omar Torres-Carvajal, and Jay M. Savage 2009. TESTING SPECIES BOUNDARIES WITHIN THE ATRACTUS OCCIPITOALBUS COMPLEX (SERPENTES: DIPSADIDAE). Herpetologica 65 (4): 384-403 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Peters, James A.; Donoso-Barros, Roberto & Orejas-Miranda, Braulio 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part I Snakes. Part II Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 347 pp. - get paper here
  • Pizzatto, Lígia; Maurício Cantor, Juliana Lima de Oliveira, Otavio A.V. Marques, Vinicius Capovilla, and Marcio Martins 2008. Reproductive Ecology of Dipsadine Snakes, With Emphasis on South American Species. Herpetologica 64 (2): 168-179 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zaracho, Víctor Hugo; Ingaramo, María del Rosario; Semhan, Romina Valeria; Etchepare, Eduardo; Acosta, José Luis; Falcione, Ana Camila; Álvarez, Blanca 2014. Herpetofauna de la Reserva Natural Provincial Isla Apipé Grande (Corrientes, Argentina). Cuad. herpetol. 28 (2): 153-160 - get paper here
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