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Atractus snethlageae DA CUNHA & DO NASCIMENTO, 1983

IUCN Red List - Atractus snethlageae - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymAtractus flammigerus snethlageae DA CUNHA & DO NASCIMENTO 1983
Atractus major — SAVAGE 1960: 47 (part.)
Atractus flammigerus — HOOGMOED 1980: 20 (part.)
Atractus snethlageae — VANZOLINI 1986: 25
Atractus snethlageae — MARTINS & OLIVEIRA 1993
Atractus snethlagae — SILVA-HAAD 2004
Atractus snethlageae — PASSOS et al. 2007
Atractus snethlageae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 81 
DistributionBrazil (Amapá, Amazonas, Rondonia, Pará: [HR 31: 254], Maranhão), Suriname, Colombia (Amazonas, Boyacá), Bolivia (Pando), Peru (Cajamarca, San Martín, Cuzco, Madre de Dios, Ucayali), Ecuador, N Argentina, elevation 0-1800 m.

Type locality: Colônia Nova, Rio Gurupi, Pará, Rodovia Br-316, 10 Km antes do Gurupi, 01°26’ S, 47°32’ W. Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: MPEG 10.131, adult male 
CommentDiagnosis. A species of Atractus with 17 dorsal scales rows, differing from all congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) large size, adults reaching about 700 mm in TL; (2) loreal long (about three times longer than high); (3) generally seven (rarely eight) supralabials with third and fourth (fourth and fifth whenever eight supralabials are present) in contact with eye; (4) generally eight (rarely seven) infralabials with first four in contact with chinshields; (5) six to seven maxillary teeth; (6) 151–180 ventral scales in females and 137–165 in males; (7) 19–28 subcaudal scales in females and 27–45 in females; (8) tail of moderate length: Tail/TL 6.9– 17.6%; (9) dorsal color pattern of dark gray/brown ground coloration with pale crossbands or blotches usually edged in black, or dorsal ground color pale brown with dark brown or black blotches [SCHARGEL et al. 2013]

Similar species: A. major (in Ecuador); A. badius (in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru). Note that A. snethlageae is quite variable. 
References
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • Cacciali, P.; Villalba, R. & Yanosky, A.A. 2007. A NEW SPECIES OF ATRACTUS (SERPENTES:COLUBRIDAE: DIPSADINAE) FROM THE ATLANTIC FOREST OF ALTO PARANÁ, PARAGUAY. South American J. Herp. 2 (2): 83-88 - get paper here
  • Camper, Jeffrey D. and David J. Zart. 2014. Atractus snethlageae (ground snake) diet. Herpetological Review 45 (4): 705
  • Cunha, O R da; do Nascimento F P 1983. Ofidios da Amazonia. 20 - As especies de Atractus Wagler, 1828, na Amazonia oriental & Maranhao (Ophidia, Colubridae). Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi NOVA SERIE ZOOLOGIA (No. 123): 1-38
  • da Silva, Jr., N. J. and Sites, Jr., J. W. 1995. Patterns of diversity of neotropical squamate reptile species with emphasis on the Brazilian Amazon and the conservation potential of indigenous reserves. Conserv. Biol. 9 (4): 873-901 - get paper here
  • Martins M. Oliveira M E. 1993. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil. Zoologische Mededelingen 67 (1-26): 21-40. - get paper here
  • Morato, S.A.A.; Calixto, P.O.; Mendes, L.R.; Gomes, R.; Galatti, U.; Trein, F.L.; Oliveira, F.S.; Ferreira, G.N. 2014. Guia fotográfico de identificação da herpetofauna da Floresta Nacional de Saracá-Taquera, Estado do Pará. Curitiba: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A.; 213 p. - get paper here
  • Passos, P. & Fernandes, R. 2008. A new species of the colubrid snake genus Atractus (Reptilia: Serpentes) from the central Amazon of Brazil. Zootaxa 1849: 59–66 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., R. Fernandes and Borges-Nojosa, D.M. 2007. A New Species of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadinae) from a Relictual Forest in Northeastern Brazil. Copeia 2007 (4): 788–797 - get paper here
  • Passos, Paulo; Philippe J. R. Kok, Nelson R. de Albuquerque, and Gilson A. Rivas 2013. Groundsnakes of the Lost World: A Review of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from the Pantepui Region, Northern South America. Herpetological Monographs 27 (1): 52-86 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Santos-Costa, Maria Cristina dos; Gleomar Fabiano Maschio, Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente 2015. Natural history of snakes from Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, eastern Amazonia, Brazil Herpetology Notes 8: 69-98 - get paper here
  • SCHARGEL, WALTER E.; WILLIAM W. LAMAR, PAULO PASSOS, JORGE H. VALENCIA, DIEGO F. CISNEROS-HEREDIA, JONATHAN A. CAMPBELL 2013. A new giant Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from Ecuador, with notes on some other large Amazonian congeners. Zootaxa 3721 (5): 455–474 - get paper here
  • Silva Haad, J.J. 2004. Las serpientes del género Atractus Wagler, 1828 (Colubridae; Xenodontinae) en la Amazonia colombiana. [The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler, 1828 (Colubridae; Xenodontinae) in the colombian Amazonia.]. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales (108): 409-446
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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