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Atractus steyermarki ROZE, 1958

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymAtractus steyermarki ROZE 1958: 301
Atractus steyermarki — LANCINI & KORNACKER 1989
Atractus steyermarki — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Atractus steymarki [sic] — PASSOS et al. 2007
Atractus guerreroi MYERS & DONNELLY 2008
Atractus steyermarki — PASSOS et al. 2013
Atractus guerreroi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 73
Atractus steyermarki — WALLACH et al. 2014: 81
Atractus guerreroi — NATERA-MUMAW et al. 2015: 119 
DistributionVenezuela (Bolivar), through Guyana (Cuyuni-Mazaruni District)

Type locality: Chimantá Tepui, Estado de Bolivar, Venezuela, (05°18’N, 62°10’W; ca. 1430 m elevation)

guerreroi: Venezuela (Auyantepui);Type locality: Auyantepui (ca. 2100 m elevation) Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: FMNH 69920, adult male; Paratype: FMNH 74036, adult female 
CommentSynonymy: after PASSOS et al. 2013: 64.

Habitat: open formations like savannahs and tepui meadows as well as cloud forests between 500 and 2244 m elevation.

Diagnosis. Atractus steyermarki can be distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) smooth dorsal scale rows 17/17/17; (2) post-oculars usually two; (3) loreal moderately long; (4) temporals 1 + 2; (5) supralabials six or seven, third and fourth contacting orbit; (6) infralabials seven, first three contacting chin shields; (7) maxillary teeth five or six; (8) gular scale rows four; (9) preventrals four or five; (10) ventrals 177–183 in females, 160–167 in males; (11) subcaudals 27–33 in females, 37–44 in males; (12) in preservation, dorsum dark brown to black, usually with a dark vertebral stripe and sometimes with barely defined dark brown dorsolateral stripes; (13) in preservation, venter of juveniles predominantly cream generally with a midventral stripe at least in the posterior region of the body, venter of adults similar, but with broader and more conspicuous midventral stripe; (14) body size moderate, females reaching 373 mm SVL, males 348 mm SVL; (15) tail size moderate in females (11.1–13.4% SVL) and relatively long (16.1–20.1% SVL) in males; (16) hemipenis unilobed with bifurcate sulcus spermaticus, organ noncapitate and noncalyculate [PASSOS et al. 2013]. 
References
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Lancini,A.R. & Kornacker,P.M. 1989. Die Schlangen von Venezuela. Armitano Editores C.A., Caracas, 1-381
  • Myers, Charles W.;Donnelly, Maureen A. 2008. The Summit Herpetofauna Of Auyantepui, Venezuela: Report From The Robert G. Goelet American Museum-Terramar Expedition. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 308: 1-147 - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Passos, P., R. Fernandes and Borges-Nojosa, D.M. 2007. A New Species of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadinae) from a Relictual Forest in Northeastern Brazil. Copeia 2007 (4): 788–797 - get paper here
  • Passos, Paulo; Philippe J. R. Kok, Nelson R. de Albuquerque, and Gilson A. Rivas 2013. Groundsnakes of the Lost World: A Review of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from the Pantepui Region, Northern South America. Herpetological Monographs 27 (1): 52-86 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Roze, Jánis A. 1961. El genero Atractus (Serpentes: Colubridae) en Venezuela. Acta Biologica Venezuelica 3 (7): 103-119
  • Roze,J.A. 1958. Los reptiles del Chimantá Tepui (Estado Bolívar, Venezuela) colectados por la expedición botánica del Chicago Natural History Museum. Acta Biol. Venezuelica 2 (25): 299-314
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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