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Atractus torquatus (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL, 1854)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesNeckband Ground Snake 
SynonymRhabdosoma torquatum DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 101
Brachyorrhos torquatus BOIE 1827 (fide DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854)
Calamaria badia — SCHLEGEL 1837 (part.)
Rabdosoma varium JAN 1862
Rabdosoma varium — JAN 1865
Rhabdosoma varium — KAPPLER 1881
Atractus torquatus — BOULENGER 1894
Rhabdosoma torquatum — SAVAGE 1960
Atractus torquatus — HOOGMOED 1980
Atractus torquatus — KORNACKER 1999: 66
Atractus davidhardi SILVA HAAD 2004
Atractus janethae SILVA HAAD 2004
Atractus lucilae SILVA HAAD 2004
Atractus lucilae — PASSOS et al. 2007
Atractus davidhardi — PASSOS et al. 2007
Atractus torquatus — PASSOS et al. 2007
Atractus torquatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 82 
DistributionColombia (Amazonas), Bolivia, Brazil (Amazonas, Pará), Peru, Venezuela (Bolivar [HR 30: 53], Amazonas); French Guiana (HOOGMOED 1980), Guyana (KOK 2006).

Type locality: Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Dep. de Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

davidhardi: Colombia (Amazonas); Type locality: Letícia, Amazonas, Colombia.

janethae: Colombia (Amazonas); Type locality: “Colombia, departamento de Amazonas, La Chorrera (01º 25’ 24” Sur, 72º 51’ 16”Oeste). Actualmente restringida a la localidad típica en el corregimiento de La Chorrera, en los márgenes del río Igaparaná.”

lucilae: Colombia (Amazonas); Type locality: Colombia (Amazonas), La Pedreira, Puerto Córdoba (01º 09’38” Sur, 69º 40’ 00” Oeste) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesLectotype: MNHN 437, male, designated by Savage (1960: 66).
Holotype: ICN 10096 [davidhardi]
Holotype: ICN 10104 (JSH-567) [janethae]
Holotype: ICN 10105 [lucilae] 
CommentSynonymy: partly after HOOGMOED 1980. Atractus davidhardi, A. janethae, and A. lucilae were synonymized with Atractus torquatus by PASSOS et al. 2012. 
EtymologyEtymology (davidhardi): “Dedicada en homenaje al Dr. David L. Hardy en reconocimiento por su contribución al estudio de los ofidios venenosos de Norte y Centro América y a la investigación clínica acerca de la efectividad de los variados procedimientos terapéuticos de uso empírico en las Américas (from SILVA HAAD 2004).

Etymology (janethae): “Esta especie está dedicada a mi hija Janeth Silva Collazos.”

Etymology (lucilae): “Esta especie está dedicada a mi hija Lucila Silva Collazos.” 
References
  • Barboza, Andy C., Lujan, Lesly and Venegas, Pablo J. 2016. Atractus torquatus (Neck-banded Groundsnake) and Atractus major (Large Groundsnake) Reproduction Herpetological Review 47 (4): 675-676
  • Barrio, César Luis;Brewer-Carías, Charles;Fuentes, Oswaldo 1999. Geographic distribution. Atractus torquatus. Herpetological Review 30 (1): 53 - get paper here
  • Claessen, H. 2003. De slangen can de Guyana’s. Deel iv. Lacerta 61 (1): 19-27 - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C., G. BIBRON & A.H.A. DUMÉRIL 1854. Erpétologie générale ou Histoire Naturelle complète des Reptiles. Vol. 7 (partie 1). Paris, xvi + 780 S. - get paper here
  • Hoogmoed M.S.; de Avila-Pires T C S 1991. Annotoated checklist of the herpetofauna of Petit Saut, Sinnamary River, French Guiana. Zoologische Mededelingen 65: 53-88 - get paper here
  • Hoogmoed, M. S. 1980. Revision of the genus Atractus in Surinam, with the ressurection of two species (Colubridae, Reptilia). Notes on the Herpetofauna of Surinam VII. Zoologische Verhandelingen (175): 1-47 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 11. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Jorge, Rafael F., Rafael De Fraga and Pedro Ivo Simoes. 2016. Atractus torquatus (Neckband Ground Snake) Predation. Herpetological Review 47 (2): 307-308
  • Kok, P.J.R. 2006. A new snake of the genus Atractus Wagler, 1828 (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from Kaieteur National Park, Guyana, northeastern South America. Zootaxa 1378: 19-35 - get paper here
  • Kornacker,P.M. 1999. Checklist and key to the snakes of Venezuela. PaKo-Verlag, Rheinbach, Germany, 270 pp.
  • Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp. - get paper here
  • Martins M. Oliveira M E. 1993. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil. Zoologische Mededelingen 67 (1-26): 21-40. - get paper here
  • Morato, S.A.A.; Calixto, P.O.; Mendes, L.R.; Gomes, R.; Galatti, U.; Trein, F.L.; Oliveira, F.S.; Ferreira, G.N. 2014. Guia fotográfico de identificação da herpetofauna da Floresta Nacional de Saracá-Taquera, Estado do Pará. Curitiba: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A.; 213 p. - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Passos, P. & Fernandes, R. 2008. A new species of the colubrid snake genus Atractus (Reptilia: Serpentes) from the central Amazon of Brazil. Zootaxa 1849: 59–66 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., Dobiey, M., & Venegas, P. J. 2010. Variation and natural history notes on giant groundsnake, Atractus gigas (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). South American J. Herp. 5 (2): 73-82 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., R. Fernandes and Borges-Nojosa, D.M. 2007. A New Species of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadinae) from a Relictual Forest in Northeastern Brazil. Copeia 2007 (4): 788–797 - get paper here
  • Passos, Paulo; Philippe J. R. Kok, Nelson R. de Albuquerque, and Gilson A. Rivas 2013. Groundsnakes of the Lost World: A Review of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from the Pantepui Region, Northern South America. Herpetological Monographs 27 (1): 52-86 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Schargel, W.E. & Castoe, T.A. 2003. The hemipenes of some snakes of the semifossorial genus Atractus, with comments on variation in the genus. Journal of Herpetology 37 (4): 718-781 - get paper here
  • Silva Haad, J.J. 2004. Las serpientes del género Atractus Wagler, 1828 (Colubridae; Xenodontinae) en la Amazonia colombiana. [The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler, 1828 (Colubridae; Xenodontinae) in the colombian Amazonia.]. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales (108): 409-446
  • Starace, Fausto 1998. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. IBIS Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, Guyane, 450 pp.
  • Starace, Fausto 2013. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. Ibis Rouge Editions, Matoury, Guyane, ISBN 978-2-84450-407-4 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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