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Atractus trihedrurus AMARAL, 1926

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesSouthern Ground Snake 
SynonymAtractus trihedrurus AMARAL 1926: 105
Atractus trihedrurus — AMARAL 1978: 117
Atractus trihedrurus — PASSOS et al. 2005
Atractus trihedrurus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 82 
DistributionS Brazil (São Paulo south to Santa Catarina), elevation between 500–1400 m.

Type locality: Southern Brazil Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: IB (= IBSP) 3098 
CommentAccording to SAVAGE (1960: 31) probably not an Atractus. Status unclear until holotype will be re-examined.

Habitat: Upper Montane Rainforest.

Diagnosis: Atractus trihedrurus is distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) 17/17/17 smooth dorsal scale rows; (2) generally two postoculars; (3) loreal moderate to long; (4) temporals 1+2; (5) generally seven supralabials, third and fourth contacting chinshields; (6) seven infralabials, first four contacting chinshields; (7) eight to ten maxillary teeth; (8) generally three gular scale rows; (9) generally three preventrals; (10) 146–159 ventrals in females, 136–150 in males; (11) 16–23 subcaudals in females, 23–29 in males; (12) dorsum uniformly beige, grayish brown, or black in adults and beige or creamish red with black bands in juveniles and sub-adults; (13) venter creamish brown to uniformly black; (14) large body size, with females reaching 1010 mm SVL and males 735 mm SVL; (15) tail short in females (7.3–10.7% SVL), moderate in males (9.6–15.5% SVL); (16) hemipenis moderately bilobed, semicapitate, and semicalyculate [from Passos et al. 2010]. 
References
  • Amaral, A. 1978. Serpentes do Brasil, 2nd ed. Melhoramentos/Universidaede de Sao Paulo, 246 pp.
  • Amaral, A. do 1926. Novos gêneros e expécies de ophidios brasileiros. Arch. Mus. Nac. Brazil, Rio de Janeiro 26: 1-27
  • Cacciali, P.; Villalba, R. & Yanosky, A.A. 2007. A NEW SPECIES OF ATRACTUS (SERPENTES:COLUBRIDAE: DIPSADINAE) FROM THE ATLANTIC FOREST OF ALTO PARANÁ, PARAGUAY. South American J. Herp. 2 (2): 83-88 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., Dobiey, M., & Venegas, P. J. 2010. Variation and natural history notes on giant groundsnake, Atractus gigas (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). South American J. Herp. 5 (2): 73-82 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., R. Fernandes and Borges-Nojosa, D.M. 2007. A New Species of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadinae) from a Relictual Forest in Northeastern Brazil. Copeia 2007 (4): 788–797 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., R. Fernandes and N. Zanella 2005. A new species of Atractus (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Southern Brazil. Herpetologica 61 (2): 209-218 - get paper here
  • Passos, P.; Fernandes, R.; Bernils, R.S. & Moura-Leite, J.C. de 2010. Taxonomic revision of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Atractus (Reptilia: Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Zootaxa 2364: 1–63 - get paper here
  • Perrella, Daniel F. and Francisco, Mercival R. 2016. Atractus trihedrurus (South Brazilian Spindle Snake) Diet Herpetological Review 47 (4): 676
  • Savage,J.M. 1960. A revision of the Ecuadorian snakes of the colubrid genus Atractus. Misc. Publ. Zool. Univ. Michigan 112: 1-86 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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