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Azemiops feae BOULENGER, 1888

IUCN Red List - Azemiops feae - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Azemiopinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Fea Viper, Black-headed Burmese viper
G: Fea-Viper 
SynonymAzemiops feae BOULENGER 1888: 602
Azemiops feae — SMITH 1943: 480
Azemiops feae — WELCH 1994: 27
Azemiops feae — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 230
Azemiops feae — SANG et al. 2009
Azemiops feae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 87 
DistributionN Myanmar (= Burma), N Vietnam
S/C China (from W Yunnan and S Shaanxi east to Zhejiang, south to Guangxi; Kweichow, Sichuan, Fujien, Jiangxi, Guangdong), SE Tibet. Elevation 600-1500 m.

Type locality: Kakhyen Hills, Burma (24°35’ N 97°25’ E) Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: MSNM 30891 
CommentVenomous!

Type species: Azemiops feae Boulenger, 1888 is the type species of the genus Azemiops Boulenger, 1888. The subfamily was established by LIEM et al. 171.

Diagnosis (genus): presence of the choanal process on the palatine, oviparity, large scales on the head and smooth dorsal scales (Zug et al., 2001; Orlov et al., 2002; Mallow et al., 2003; Orlov et al., 2013, Snetkov & Orlov 2017).

DIAGNOSIS. No sensory pit between nostril and eye; body cylindrical; head flattened, above covered with large, symmetrical shields; nostril large, in single completely differentiated nasal; loreal shield present, small; 2 pre- and 2 postoculars; eye with vertically elliptic pupil; scales smooth, in 17 longitudinal rows at midbody; ventrals 180–18; subcaudals 42–53, mostly paired, occasionally anterior shields undivided; blackish above, scales often edged with gray, 14–15 narrow white or pinkish crossbands, sometimes interrupted middorsally, or alternating with one another laterally; head yellow with a pair of dark brown to black stripes of somewhat irregular width extending from prefrontals to the black color on the neck. Total length males 25 mm,•= females 820; tail length males 100 mm, females 80 mm.

Diagnosis. Viperid snake of medium-size of genus Azemiops, up to 700 mm in body length with a tail. The head is well demarcated from the body by neck interception, noticeably flattened, covered with symmetrical shields. Head has a trapezoidal shape with slightly rounded short snout. Nostril is located in a single nasal; loreal present; eye relatively small, with vertical pupil. The body is nearly round in cross-section, slightly flat- tened dorso-ventrally, ventrals rounded. Scales smooth, in 13 – 17 rows around the middle of the body. Tail short; subcaudals in two rows. Ventrals 16 – 180; anal entire; subcaudals 41 – 44 pairs. Upper surface of head (from the prefrontals) black, with a yellow median line. Pterygoideum with 11 teeth. Angulare very small, shorter than spleniale and much shorter than dentale. Dentale with 13 – 14 teeth. Quadratum long, directed downward and backward, and articulates with pterygoideum. 167 – 17 trunk vertebrae, 45 – 4 caudal vertebrae. Parapophyses without long ventral processes. Hypopophyses developed on all trunk vertebrae, they are much shorter than the spinous processes. Parapophyses without long ventral processes. A more detailed description is based on the specimen ZISP 25868, female. See Orlov et al. 2013:116 for details. 
EtymologyNamed after Leonardo Fea, naturalist in Genua. 
References
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, GEORGE A. 1888. An account of the Reptilia obtained in Burma, north of Tenasserim, by M. L. Fea, of the Genova Civic Museum. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, ser. 2, 6: 593-604 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • Dowling, H.G., & Jenner, J.V. 1988. Snakes of Burma: checklist of reported species and bibliography. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (76): 19 pp. - get paper here
  • Gower, D.; Garrett, K. & Stafford, P. 2012. Snakes. Firefly Books, Buffalo, NY,<br />144 p..
  • Kardong, Kenneth V. 1986. Observations on live Azemiops feae, Fea's viper. Herpetological Review 17 (4): 81-82 - get paper here
  • Knight, Alec;Mindell, David 1993. Substitution bias, weighting of DNA sequence evolution, and the phylogenetic position of Fea's viper [Azemiops feae]. Systematic Biology 42 (1): 18-31 - get paper here
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Guinevere O.U. Wogan; Michelle S. Koo; George R. Zug; Rhonda S. Lucas and Jens V. Vindum 2003. The Dangerously Venomous Snakes of Myanmar Illustrated Checklist with Keys. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 54 (24): 407–462
  • Liem, K. F., H. Marx, G. B. Rabb 1971. The viperid snake Azemiops: its comparative cephalic anatomy and phylogenetic position in relation to Viperinae and Crotalinae. Fieldiana Zoology, 59 (2):65-126 - get paper here
  • Lillywhite, Harvey B. 2014. How Snakes Work: Structure, Function and Behavior of the World's Snakes. Oxford University Press, New York, 256 pp
  • Mallow, D. Ludwig, D. & Nilson, G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Krieger, Malabar, Florida, 410 pp. [review in HR 35: 200, Reptilia 35: 74]
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Orlov, N. L. & Ryabov, S. A. 2002. Zur Kenntnis von Fea’s Viper, Azemiops feae BOULENGER 1888. Sauria 24 (1): 17-22 - get paper here
  • Orlov, N.; Ananjeva, A.; Ryabov, S. & Rao, D.-Q. 2003. Venomous snakes in Southern China. Reptilia (GB) (31): 22-29 - get paper here
  • Orlov, N.; Ananjeva, A.; Ryabov, S. & Rao, D.-Q. 2003. Die Giftschlangen Südchinas. Reptilia (Münster) 8 (44): 30-36 - get paper here
  • Orlov, N.; Ananjeva, N.; Barabanov, A.; Ryabov, S. & Khalikov, R. 2002. Diversity of vipers (Azemiopinae, Crotalinae) in East, Southeast, and South Asia: annotated checklist and natural history data (Reptilia: Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). Faun. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 23: 177-218
  • Orlov, Nikolai L.; Sergei A. Ryabov, Tao Thien Nguyen 2013. On the Taxonomy and the Distribution of Snakes of the Genus Azemiops Boulenger, 1888: Description of a New Species. Russ. J. Herpetol. 20 (2): 110-128 - get paper here
  • Phelps, T. 2010. Old World Vipers. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 558 pp. [critical review in Sauria 33 (3): 19 and HR 43: 503]
  • Preißler, D. 2004. Alles über Schlangen. Draco 5 (17): 4-21 - get paper here
  • Sang, Nguyen Van; Ho Thu Cuc, Nguyen, Quang Truong 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Seung Hoon, Cha 2012. Snake, the world most beautifull curve [in Korean]. Hownext, 304 pp. [ISBN 978-89-965656-7-3] - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Snetkov, P. B.; N. L. Orlov 2017. Phylogenetic Analysis of Old World Viperid Snakes (Serpentes, Viperidae) Based on Skeletal Morphology Russ. J. Herpetol. 24 (1): 22-34 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
  • Zug,G.R.; Vitt, L.J. & Caldwell, J.P. 2001. Herpetology, 2nd ed. Academic Press San Diego, London, [...]XIV + 630 pp.
 
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