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Bachia oxyrhina RODRIGUES, CAMACHO, SALES-NUNES, SOUSA RECODER, TEIXEIRA JR., VALDUJO, GHELLERE, MOTT & NOGUEIRA, 2008

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymBachia oxyrhina RODRIGUES et al. 2008 
DistributionC Brazil (Tocantins)

Type locality: Morro do Fumo, Estação Ecológica Serra Geral do Tocantins (10°51’58.41”S, 46°49’9.07”W), Mateiros municipality, state of Tocantins, Brazil. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: MZUSP 98086, an adult male, collected by the authors of this paper on February 15th, 2008. Field number PHV 2208. 
CommentLimbless.

Habitat: superficial layer of sandy soils.

Diagnosis: A species of the bresslaui group having lanceolate dorsal and lateral body scales, quadrangular and juxtaposed smooth ventrals, tail scales lanceolate, imbricate, keeled, 1–1 femoral pores and 1–1 preanal pores in males (only preanal pores in females), interparietal, supraoculars and superciliaries present, 42–45 dorsals, 34–36 ventrals, and 29–30 scales around midbody. Snout highly prominent and wedge shaped, distinctively projecting over lower jaw. Fore limb and hind limb rudimentary, stiliform, ending in one apical scale. Five supralabials; fifth the largest and the highest, contacting or not parietal. Anterior portion of nasal scale fused with first supralabial. One enlarged temporal scale contacting or not postocular. Two supraoculars; second small, restricted to the lateral face of head, allowing extensive contact between parietal and first supraocular. Width of first supraocular less than 1/3 of the anterior margin of frontal.
Bachia oxyrhina can be immediately distinguished from B. panoplia and B. pyburni by the absence of prefrontals, present and in contact at midline in both latter species. In Bachia scolecoides, prefrontals are also present but widely separated and reduced in size. Species of Bachia of the bresslaui group without prefrontals are B. bresslaui, B. cacerensis, B. micromela B. psamophila, and B. oxyrhina. Except for Bachia oxyrhina that has five supralabials, all other species of bresslaui group have six. Bachia oxyrhina is also unique in having the anterior portion of nasal scale fused to first supralabial and the lower number of scales around body (29– 30 vs. 33–47 in other species). Bachia oxyrhina resembles more closely B. psamophila and B. micromela, especially the former by its pronounced and prominent wedge shaped snout. Besides the above mentioned characters Bachia oxyrhina differs from the latter species by presenting the second pair of chin shields broadly separated at midline (respectively in slight and broad contact at midline in B. psamophila and B. micromela). In Bachia bresslaui, B. scolecoides, B. panoplia, and B. pyburni there is no contact between supralabials and parietal. Contact between supralabials and parietal is variable in Bachia cacerensis, B. psamophila, B. micromela, and B. oxyrhina. In one of the three known specimens of Bachia cacerensis there is slight contact between parietal and 6th labial. In Bachia psamophila the 6th supralabial is the largest and highest and contacts the parietal; in B. micromela it is the 5th supralabial that contacts the parietal. The condition varies in Bachia oxyrhina where either it is the 5th supralabial that contacts punctually the parietal or their contact is prevented by a slight contact between postocular and temporal. This is a different condition than the one observed in Bachia psamophila where there are six labials and an enlarged postocular separates the 5th supralabial from parietal. Bachia cacerensis is unique in the bresslaui group in having four unclawed finger-like apical scales in the forelimb; all other species, B. oxyrhina, B. psamophila, B. bresslaui and B. micromela have just one apical scale in the forelimb, in the last species ending in an ungual sheath. The hind limb of Bachia oxyrhina, like those of B. bresslaui and B. cacerensis ends with one apical scale, whereas there are two in B. micromela and four clawed toes in B. psamophila. 
EtymologyThe specific name derives from the Greek “oxy” (sharp, spatulate, wedge shaped), and “rhino” (nose) being a reference to the pronounced, wedge shaped nose of this species, an adaptation to life in the sandy habitats where it occurs. 
References
  • RODRIGUES, MIGUEL TREFAUT; AGUSTÍN CAMACHO, PEDRO MURILO SALES NUNES, RENATO SOUSA RECODER, MAURO TEIXEIRA JR., PAULA H. VALDUJO, JOSÉ MÁRIO B. <br />GHELLERE, TAMÍ MOTT & CRISTIANO NOGUEIRA 2008. A new species of the lizard genus Bachia (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Cerrados of Central Brazil. Zootaxa 1875: 39–50 - get paper here
  • TEIXEIRA JR, MAURO; RENATO SOUSA RECODER, AGUSTÍN CAMACHO, MARCO AURÉLIO DE SENA, CARLOS ARTURO NAVAS & MIGUEL TREFAUT RODRIGUES 2013. A new species of Bachia Gray, 1845 (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Eastern Brazilian Cerrado, and data on its ecology, physiology and behavior. Zootaxa 3616 (2): 173–189 - get paper here
 
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