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Bachia trinitatis (BARBOUR, 1914)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae, Bachiinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Trinidad Bachia, Trinidad Worm lizard 
SynonymScolecosaurus trinitatis BARBOUR 1914: 316
Scolecosaurus trinitatis — BRONGERSMA 1946
Scolecosaurus trinitatis — LYNN 1959
Bachia alleni trinitatis — DONOSO-BARROS 1968
Bachia heteropa trinitatis — JOHN et al. 2012
Bachia trinitatis — MURPHY et al. 2019 
DistributionTrinidad, Bocas Islands (Chacachacare, Monos, and Gasparee), Tobago, Little Tobago Island

Type locality: Capara (probably = Caparo), Trinidad (10°27′ N, 61°20′ W).  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: MCZ 8947 (also given as 947), adult, A. B. Carr, collector 
DiagnosisDiagnosis A Bachia with (1) the prefrontal scales in narrow contact, or not in contact (2) the second supraocular the lon- gest; (3) the frontonasal is pentagonal; (4) there are five digits on the manus and four digits on the pes (phalange formulas: manus 1–2–3–3–1, pes 2–3–3–2); (5) there is a band of ten (8–11) hexagonal scales on the dorsum; (6) scales around mid- body 26–29; (7) transverse dorsal scales in 36–42 rows; (8) the fifth upper labial does not usually make contact with the last supraocular; (9) seven or eight rows of gulars; (10) the second pair of chin shields are completely separated; (11) an interparietal scale is present (Murphy et al. 2019). 
CommentSynonymy mostly that of Dixon (1973) and Murphy et al. 2019. BAUER & GÜNTHER 1994 list Bachia alleni trinitatis as valid combination. Thomas (1965) considered B. trinitatis to be a subspecies of B. alleni.

Subspecies: Intermediate specimens between B. h. heteropa and B. h. trinitatis are known from eastern Venezuela (RIVAS et al. 2012).

Similar species: Bachia trinitatis has five digits on each manus and four on each pes (Bachia alleni has four digits on each limb). The prefrontals may make narrow medial contact or make no contact (B. alleni prefrontals make medial contact). Bachia heteropa has no prefrontals; three digits on the pes; and the second pair of chin shields are in contact (not so in B. trinitatis). It can be distinguished from B. whitei sp. nov. by the band of hexagonal scales (B. whitei sp. nov. has quadrangular scales) and B. whitei sp. nov. lacks an interparietal scale (B. trinitatis has an interparietal scale). To distinguish B. trinitatis from other former members of the B. heteropa group, see Table 2 in Murphy et al. 2019. 
Etymology 
References
  • Barbour, Thomas 1914. A Contribution to the Zoögeography of the West Indies, with Especial Reference to Amphibians and Reptiles. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy 44 (2): 205-359 - get paper here
  • Barbour,T. 1933. Notes on Scolecosaurus. Copeia 1933 (2): 74-77 - get paper here
  • Bauer, A.M. and R. Günther 1994. An annotated type catalogue of the teiid and microteiid lizards in the Zoological Museum, Berlin (Reptilia: Squamata: Teiidae and Gymnophthalmidae). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 70:267-280
  • Bentz, Ehren J.; Mel José Rivera Rodríguez, Rebecca R. John, Robert W. Henderson, and Robert Powell 2011. Population Densities, Activity, Microhabitats, and Thermal Biology of a Unique Crevice- and Litter-dwelling Assemblage of Reptiles on Union Island, St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Herp. Cons. Biol. 6 (1): 40-50 - get paper here
  • Boos, H.E.A. 1984. The terrestrial reptiles of Monos island. Living World - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1903. Descriptions of new lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 12: 429-435 - get paper here
  • Brongersma, L.D. 1946. Some notes on species of the genera Bachia and Scolecosaurus. Zoologische Mededelingen 26: 237-246 - get paper here
  • Daan, S. & Hillenius,D. 1966. Catalogue of the type specimens of amphibians and reptiles in the Zoological Museum, Amsterdam. Beaufortia 13: 117-144
  • Daudin, Jacques; de Silva, Mark. 2007. An annotated checklist of the amphibians and terrestrial reptiles of the Grenadines with notes on their local natural history and conservation. Applied Herpetology 4 (2):163-175 - get paper here
  • Disi, Ahmad; Zuhair S. Amr, Nashat Hamidan 2014. Diversity, Threats, and Conservation of the Terrestrial and Freshwater Herpetofauna of Jordan . Russ. J. Herpetol. 21 (3): 221-233 - get paper here
  • Dixon, J.R. 1973. A systematic review of the teiid lizards, genus Bachia, with remarks on Heterodactylus and Anotosaura. Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 57: 1-47 - get paper here
  • Donoso-Barros, R. 1968. The lizards of Venezuela (checklist and key). Carib. J. Sci. 8 (3-4): 105-122
  • Donoso-Barros, R. and A. Garrido R. 1964. Nuevo Teiidae de Venezuela, Bachia marcelae, nov. sp. Publ. Ocas. Mus. Cienc. Nat., Caracas (Zool.) 8: 1-7
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol.5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Esqueda, Luis Felipe, Enrique La Marca, Marco Natera and Pietro Battiston 2001. Noteworthy reptilian state records and a lizard species new to the herpetofauna of Venezuela. Herpetological Review 32 (3):198-200 - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1826. Neue Classification der Reptilien nach ihren natürlichen Verwandtschaften nebst einer Verwandschafts-Tafel und einem Verzeichnisse der Reptilien-Sammlung des K. K. Zoologischen Museums zu Wien. J. G. Heubner, Wien, 66 pp. - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1892. On Cophias and Bachia. Bull. Essex Inst. 24: 96-97
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • John, Rebecca R., Ehren J. Bentz, Mel Jose Rivera Rodriguez, Aaron M. Bauer and Robert Powell. 2012. Bachia heteropa. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (894): 1-9 - get paper here
  • Johnson, M.L. 1946. Herpetological Notes from Trinidad. Copeia 1946 (2): 108 - get paper here
  • Kramer, Eugen 1979. Typenkatalog der Echsen im Naturhistorischen Museum Basel (BM), Stand 1978. [type catalogue] Revue Suisse de Zoologie 86 (1): 159-166 - get paper here
  • Lichtenstein, H., and E. von Martens. 1856. Nomenclator reptilium et amphibiorum Musei Zoologici Berolinensis. Namenverzeichniss der in der zoologischen Sammlung der Königlichen Universität zu Berlin aufgestellten Arten von Reptilien und Amphibien nach ihren Ordnungen, Familien und Gattungen. Königliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin / Buchdruckerei der Königl. Akad. der Wiss., iv + 48 pp. - get paper here
  • Lynn, W.G. 1959. Some Reptiles and Amphibians From Trinidad. Herpetologica 15 (3): 113-117 - get paper here
  • Markezich, A.L. 2002. New distribution records of reptiles from Western Venezuela. Herpetological Review 33 (1): 69-74 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1972. Herpetofauna tobagana. Stuttgarter Beitr. zur Naturkunde nr. 252 22 pp. - get paper here
  • Mijares-Urrutia, A. & Arends R., Alexis 1999. Additional New Regional and Local Records of Amphibians and Reptiles from the State of Falcón, Venezuela. Herpetological Review 30 (2): 115 - get paper here
  • Murphy, John C.; Daniele Salvi, Joana L. Santos, Alvin L. Braswell, Stevland P. Charles, Amaél Borzée & Michael J. Jowers 2019. The reduced limbed lizards of the genus Bachia (Reptilia, Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae); biogeography, cryptic diversity, and morphological convergence in the eastern Caribbean Organisms Diversity & Evolution - get paper here
  • Powell, Robert and Robert W. Henderson 2017. Notes on the diets of some amphibians and reptiles of the St. Vincent and Grenada Banks (Lesser Antilles) IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 24 (2): 135–138 - get paper here
  • Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A.; Marcélia B. da Silva, and Jucivaldo D. Lima 2016. A New Species of Bachia Gray 1845 (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Eastern Guiana Shield Herpetologica Jun 2016, Vol. 72, No. 2: 148-156.
  • Rivas Fuenmayor, G.; Ugueto, G.; Rivero, R. & Miralles, A. 2005. The Herpetofauna of Isla de Margarita, Venezuela: New Records and Comments. Carib. J. Sci. 41 (2): 346-351
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Roux,J. 1929. Sur deux Reptiles nouveaux du Vénézuela. Verhandlungen dem Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Basel 40 (2): 29-34
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Señaris, J. Celsa; María Matilde Aristeguieta Padrón, Haidy Rojas Gil y Fernando J. M. Rojas-Runjaic 2018. Guía ilustrada de los anfibios y reptiles del valle de Caracas, Venezuela. Ediciones IVIC, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC). Caracas, Venezuela. 348 pp.
  • Vanzolini,P.E. 1961. Bachia: Especies Brasileiras e conceito generico (Sauria: Teiidae). Papéis Avulsos Zoologia (São Paulo) 14: 193-209
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