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Blanus cinereus VANDELLI, 1797

IUCN Red List - Blanus cinereus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaBlanidae, Amphisbaenia, Lacertoidea, Squamata 
Common NamesE: Mediterranean Worm Lizard
G: Maurische Netzwühle
D: Moorse Wormhagedis 
SynonymAmphisbaena Cinerea BAPTISTA 1783 (nomen nudum)
Amphisbaena reticulata THUNBERG in HOLMER 1787: 30 (nomen oblitum)
Amphisbaena Cinerea VANDELLI 1797: 69
Amphisbaena rufa HEMPRICH 1820
Amphisbaena oxyura WAGLER 1824: 72
[Blanus] cinereus WAGLER 1830
Amphisbaena cinerea — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 500
Blanus cinereus — GRAY 1865: 369
Amphisbaena cinerea — BOETTGER 1880
Blanus cinereus — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Blanus cinereus — VACONCELOS et al. 2006
Blanus mariae ALBERT & FERNÁNDEZ 2009
Blanus cinereus — KWET & TRAPP 2015 
DistributionMorocco, Portugal (incl. Pessegueiro), Spain

Type locality: ‘‘Lusitanica’’ = Portugal; lectotype locality: São Bento, Lisboa (38.7115 N, −9.1547 E; WGS-84), Portugal.

mariae: S Portugal, S Spain, Gibraltar; Type locality: Faro region, Loulé (37º 08´N, -8º 02´W), Portugal.  
TypesNeotype: MUHNAC/MB03-000375, adult male (designated by CERÍACO & BAUER 2018)
Lectotype: ANSP 9672, collected by Vandelli and exchanged from the museum at Lisbon plus others (fide GANS 2005) (designated by ALBERT & FERNANDEZ 2009 but invalidated by CERÍACO & BAUER 2018).
Holotype: ZMB 1389 [Amphisbaena rufa]
Holotype: MNCN 44638 Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain. An adult female collected by Eva M. Albert and Jordi Bascompte on March 2002 [mariae] 
CommentThe publication year of HEMPRICH’s description is sometimes given as 1829. However, BAUER (2001) concludes that 1820 is the correct date.

Distribution map in VACONCELOS et al. 2006, CERÍACO & BAUER 2018: 18 (blue dots).

Type species: Amphisbaena cinerea is the type species of the genus Blanus WAGLER 1830. Blanus is the type genus of the family Blanidae KEARNEY 2003.

Synonymy: Petition for suppression of the name Amphisbaena reticulata submitted by Gans, 1961b: 223. Nomen oblitum fide International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 1961: art. 23b, and Gans 1984. 
EtymologyNamed after its color, Latin “cinis, cineris” = ash.
B. mariae was named in honor of Maria Rosario Tortajada Aguilar E.M.A.´s grandmother, who died in tragic accident years ago, for her constant support. 
  • Albert, Eva M. and Adrián Fernández 2009. Evidence of cryptic speciation in a fossorial reptile: description of a new species of Blanus (Squamata: Amphisbaenia: Blanidae) from the Iberian Peninsula. Zootaxa 2234: 56-68 - get paper here
  • Bauer, Aaron M. 2001. On the correct date of description of Amphisbaena scutigera Hemprich and A. rufa Hemprich. International Society for the History and Bibliography of Herpetology. 3(1):11-13 - get paper here
  • Bedriaga, JAKOB VLADIMIROVIC 1884. Àmphisbaena cinerea Vand. und A. strauchi v. Bedr. Erster Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Doppelschleichen. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 50 (1): 23-77 - get paper here
  • Boettger, O. [as O. Böttger] 1880. Die Reptilien und Amphibien von Syrien, Palaestina und Cypern. Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., Frankfurt/M., 1879-1880: 132-219 - get paper here
  • Bolet A, Delfino M, Fortuny J, Almécija S, Robles JM, et al. 2014. An Amphisbaenian Skull from the European Miocene and the Evolution of Mediterranean Worm Lizards. PLoS One 9 (6): e98082. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098082 - get paper here
  • Bons JACQUES 1963. Notes sur Blanus cinereus (Vandelli) description d'une sous-espèce Marocaine: Blanus cinereus mettetali ssp. nov. Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. Phys. Maroc, nos. 1-2: 95-107
  • Boulenger, George A. 1891. Catalogue of the reptiles and batrachians of Barbary (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia), based chiefly upon the notes and collections made in 1880-1884 by M. Fernand Lataste. Tr. Zool. Soc. 13: 93-164
  • Busack, S.D. & Lawson, R. 2008. Morphological, mitochondrial DNA and allozyme evolution in representative amphibians and reptiles inhabiting each side of the Strait of Gibraltar. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 94, 445–461 - get paper here
  • Ceríaco, Luis M. P. & Aaron M. Bauer 2018. An integrative approach to the nomenclature and taxonomic status of the genus Blanus Wagler, 1830 (Squamata: Blanidae) from the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Natural History 52: 849-880 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol.5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Engelmann,W.E. et al. 1993. Lurche und Kriechtiere Europas. Neumann Verlag (Radebeul, Germany), 440 pp.
  • Gans, C. 1962. Notes on amphisbaenids (Amphishaenia, Reptilia) I. on the name Amphisbaena reticulata Holmer 1787. British Journal of Herpetology 3: 12-13.
  • Gans, Carl 1961. Dubia (Amphisbaena) Rathke, 1863 (Reptilia, Squamata), Proposed suppression under the Plenary Powers. Z.N.(S.) 1466. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 18: 220 - get paper here
  • Gans, Carl 1984. The Holotype of Amphisbaena reticulata (Thunberg, 1787), rediscovered. Amphibia-Reptilia 5 (3-4): 414 - 415 - get paper here
  • GARCÍA-DÍEZ, TERESA; JOSÉ E. GONZÁLEZ-FERNÁNDEZ 2013. The reptile type specimens preserved in the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC) of Madrid, Spain. Zootaxa 3619 (1): 046–058 - get paper here
  • Gil, M. J.;Guerrero, F.; Pérez-Mellado, V. 1993. Observations on morphometrics and ecology in Blanus cinereus (Reptilia: Amphisbaenia). Journal of Herpetology 27 (2): 205-209 - get paper here
  • Glandt, Dieter;Schlüpmann, Martin;Thiesmeier, Burkhard 1998. Herpetologische Beobachtungen in der Algarve, Südportugal. Zeitschrift für Feldherpetologie 5: 181-208 - get paper here
  • Goetz, M. 2007. On the husbandry and reproduction of Blanus cinereus (VANDELLI 1797) (Squamata: Amphisbaenia) in captivitiy. Salamandra 43 (1): 52-56 - get paper here
  • Gray,J.E. 1865. A revision of the genera and species of amphisbaenians with the descriptions of some new species now in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 16: 365-377 - get paper here
  • Hediger, H. 1935. Herpetologische Beobachtungen in Marokko. Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Basel 46: 1-49
  • Hemprich,F.G. 1829. Amphisbaenarum generis novas species duas descripsit. Verhand. Gesellsch. Naturf. Fr. Berlin 1 (2): 129-130 - get paper here
  • Kearney, M. 2003. Systematics of the Amphisbaenia (Lepidosauria: Squamata) based on morphological evidence from recent and fossil forms. Herpetological Monographs 17: 1-74 - get paper here
  • Kwet, A. 2010. Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Kosmos-Verlag, Stuttgart, 252 pp.
  • Kwet, Axel & Benny Trapp 2014. Liste der Reptilien Europas. Draco 15 (60): 72-79 - get paper here
  • López, Pilar & Martín, Jose 2001. Chemosensory predator recognition induces specific defensive behaviours in a fossorial amphisbaenian. Animal Behaviour 62: 259-264
  • Lopez, Pilar, Jose Martin and Alfredo Salvador. 2013. Flexibility in feeding behaviour may compensate for morphological constraints of fossoriality in the amphisbaenian Blanus cinereus. Amphibia-Reptilia 34 (2): 241-247 - get paper here
  • López, Pilar; José Martín, William E. Cooper, Jr. 2002. Chemosensory responses to plant chemicals by the amphisbaenian Blanus cinereus. Amphibia-Reptilia 23 (3): 348-353 - get paper here
  • Maitland, David P.; Hart, Adam G. 2008. A fluorescent vertebrate: the Iberian worm-lizard Blanus cinereus (Amphisbaenidae). Herpetological Review 39 (1):50-51 - get paper here
  • Malkmus, R. 1982. Einige Bemerkungen zur Abwehrreaktion bei Blanus cinereus sowie zur Verbreitung der Art in Portugal. Salamandra 18 (1-2): 71-77 - get paper here
  • Malkmus, R. 1982. Beitrag zur Verbreitung der Amphibien und Reptilien in Portugal. Salamandra 18 (3-4): 218-299 - get paper here
  • Malkmus, R. 1983. Nachtrag zur Verbreitung der Amphibien und Reptilien Portugals. Salamandra 19 (1-2): 71-83 - get paper here
  • Malkmus, R. 1990. Herpetofaunistische Daten aus Nordostportugal. Salamandra 26 (2-3): 165-176 - get paper here
  • Malkmus, R. 1995. Die Amphibien und Reptilien Portugals, Madeiras und der Azoren. Die Neue Brehm-Bücherei, Bd. 621. Westarp Wissenschaften (Magdeburg)/Spektrum Akademischer Verlag (Heidelberg)
  • Malkmus, R. 1997. Partieller Albinismus bei der Netzwühle, Blanus cinerus in Portugal. Sauria 19 (4): 45-46 - get paper here
  • Perez, C. & K. Bensusan 2005. A Guide to the Upper Rock Nature Reserve. Gibraltar Ornithological & Natural History Society, Gibraltar, 28 pp.
  • Pfau, J. 1988. Beitrag zur Verbreitung der Herpetofauna in der Niederalgarve (Portugal). Salamandra 24 (4): 258-275 - get paper here
  • Salvador, A. 1981. Blanus cinereus - Netzwühle. In: Böhme,W. (ed.), Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, Band I., Echsen I. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Wiesbaden, pp. 277-289
  • Sampaio, Filipa L.; D. James Harris, Ana Perera and Daniele Salvi 2014. Phylogenetic and diversity patterns of Blanus worm lizards (Squamata: Amphisbaenia): insights from mitochondrial and nuclear gene genealogies and species tree. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, DOI: 10.1111/jzs.12075 - get paper here
  • Schlüter, U. 2012. The Rock. Die Herpetofauna Gibraltars. Reptilia (Münster) 17 (94): 93-101 - get paper here
  • Sillero, Neftalí 2010. The herpetofauna of Pessegueiro Island, including the first Portuguese insular population of Blanus cinereus. Herpetology Notes 3: 027-21 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • Trutnau, L. 1975. Europaische Amphibien und Reptilien. Belser Verlag, Stuttgart 212 pp.
  • Vaconcelos, Raquel; Carretero, Miguel A.; Harris, D. James 2006. Phylogeography of the genus Blanus (worm lizards) in Iberia and Morocco based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers – preliminary analysis. Amphibia-Reptilia 27 (3): 339-346 - get paper here
  • Vandelli,D. 1797. Florae et faunae Lusitanicae Specimen. Mem. academia real Sciencias Lisboa 1: 37-79 - get paper here
  • Wagler, Jean G. 1830. Natürliches System der Amphibien, mit vorangehender Classification der Säugetiere und Vögel. Ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Zoologie. 1.0. Cotta, München, Stuttgart, and Tübingen, 354 pp.
  • Wagler,J. 1824. Serpentum Brasiliensium species novae, ou histoire naturelle des espèces nouvelles de serpens. In: Jean de Spix, Animalia nova sive species novae. [NAtrix bahiensis: 27,. Monaco, Typis Franc. Seraph. Hübschmanni, vii + 75 pp.
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