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Bothrocophias colombianus (RENDAHL & VESTERGREN, 1941)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Colombian Lancehead, Munchique's Rufous Lancehead
S: Equis Colorada de Munchique 
SynonymBothrops microphthalmus colombianus RENDAHL & VESTERGREN 1941: 15
Trimeresurus microphthalmus — SCHMIDT & WALKER 1943
Bothrops microphthalmus colombianus — PETERS et al. 1970: 49
Porthidium colombianum — GOLAY et al. 1993: 84
Bothrops microphthalmus colombianus — WELCH 1994: 33
Bothrops colombianus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 260
Bothrocophias colombianus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004
Bothrocophias colombianus — CASTRO et al. 2005
Bothrocophias colombianus — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothrocophias colombianus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 113 
DistributionW Colombia (Cauca), elevation 1400-2300 m

Type locality: La Costa, Cauca, Colombia Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: NRM (NHRM) 23114. 
CommentVenomous!

Phylogenetics: FENWICK et al. 2009 expect that B. colombianus is part of the Bothrocophias clade based on external morphology, although limited sampling did not allow them to include it in the phylogeny.

Synonymy: FOLLECO-FERNANDEZ 2010 revalidated Bothrops rhombeatus GARCIA 1896, previously a synonym of B. colombianus.

Distribution: See map in FOLLECO-FERNANDEZ 2010. Reports from ANTIOQUIA (Nicéforo María, 1975) most likely represent individual introductions from Cauca to Antioquia (Luis E Vera Pérez, pers. comm. 7 May 2013). 
References
  • Carrasco, P.A., C.I. Mattoni, G.C. Leynaud, and G.J. Scrocchi. 2012. Morphology, phylogeny and taxonomy of South American bothropoid pitvipers (Serpentes, Viperidae). Zoologica Scripta 41:1–15 - get paper here
  • Castro, F.; Ayerbe, S.; Calderón, J.J. & Cepeda, B. 2005. Nuevo registro para Colombia de Bothrocophias campbelli y notas sobre B. colombianus y B. myersi (Serpentes:Viperidae). Novedades Colombianas 8(1):57-64 - get paper here
  • FENWICK, ALLYSON M.; RONALD L. GUTBERLET JR, JENNAFER A. EVANS, CHRISTOPHER L. PARKINSON 2009. Morphological and molecular evidence for phylogeny and classification of South American pitvipers, genera Bothrops, Bothriopsis, and Bothrocophias (Serpentes: Viperidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156 (3): 617-640 - get paper here
  • Folleco-Fernández, Armando Javier 2010. TAXONOMÍA DEL COMPLEJO Bothrops asper (SERPENTES: VIPERIDÆ) EN EL SUDOESTE DE COLOMBIA. REVALIDACIÓN DE LA ESPECIE Bothrops rhombeatus (GARCÍA 1896) Y DESCRIPCIÓN DE UNA NUEVA ESPECIE. Revista Novedades Colombianas, 10(1): 33-70 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Rendahl,H. & VESTERGREN,G. 1941. Notes on Colombian snakes. Arkiv för Zoologi 33A [1940] (5): 1-16
  • Schmidt, Karl P. & Walker, Warren F. 1943. Peruvian snakes from the University of Arequipa. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Zoology 24 (26): 279-296 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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