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Bothrops alternatus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL, 1854

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Urutu
G: Urutu, Halbmondlanzenotter 
SynonymBothrops alternatus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 1512
Bothrops alternatus — BOULENGER 1886: 438
Lachesis alternatus BOULENGER 1896
Lachesis inaequalis MAGALHAES 1925: 153
Bothrops alternata — HOGE 1952: 237
Bothrops alternatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 43
Bothrops alternatus — CEI 1993
Bothrops alternatus — WELCH 1994: 31
Bothrops alternatus — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 37
Bothrops alternatus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 253
Rhinocerophis alternatus — FENWICK et al. 2009
Bothrops alternatus — WINCHELL 2010
Bothrops alternatus — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Rhinocerophis alternatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 648 
DistributionNE/C Argentina (Buenos Aires, La Pampa, Santa Fe, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Misiones, Chaco, Formosa, Córdoba, Santiago del Estero, Catamarca, Tucumán, San Luis),
Uruguay, Paraguay, Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás [HR 32: 58], Mato Grosso do Sul)

Type locality: Paraguay and South America.  
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesSyntypes: Unlocated (MCDIARMID et al. 1999) 
CommentVenomous! 
References
  • Abalos, J.W., Baez, E.C., & Nader, R. 1964. Serpientes de Santiago del Estero. Acta Zoologica Lilloana 20: 211-283.
  • Amaral, A. 1935. Notas sobre chromatismo de ophidios III. Um caso de xanthismo e um novo de albinismo, observados no Brasil Estudos sobre ophidios neotropicos. Mem. Inst. Butantan 8 [1934]: 151-194 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1886. A synopsis of the reptiles and batrachians of the province Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 18: 423-445 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Cano, Paula Daniela; Héctor Alejandro Ball, Matías Federico Carpinetto, Germán Darío Peña 2015. Reptile checklist of Río Pilcomayo National Park, Formosa, Argentina. Check List 11 (3): 1658 - get paper here
  • Carrasco, P.A., C.I. Mattoni, G.C. Leynaud, and G.J. Scrocchi. 2012. Morphology, phylogeny and taxonomy of South American bothropoid pitvipers (Serpentes, Viperidae). Zoologica Scripta 41: 109-124 - get paper here
  • Carrasco, P.A.; Harvey, M.B. & Muñoz Saravia, A. 2009. The rare Andean pitviper Rhinocerophis jonathani (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae): redescription with comments on its systematics and biogeography. Zootaxa 2283: 1–15 - get paper here
  • Carreira Vidal, Santiago 2002. Alimentación de los ofidios de Uruguay. Asoc. Herp. Esp., Monograf. Herp. 6, 127 pp. - get paper here
  • Carreira, S.; Brazeiro, A.; Camargo, A.; da Rosa, I.; Canavero, A. & Maneyro, M. 2012. DIVERSITY OF REPTILES OF URUGUAY: KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION GAPS. Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2a época) 21 (1-2): 9-29 - get paper here
  • Cei, J. M. 1993. Reptiles del noroeste, nordeste y este de la Argentina. Museo Regionale Sci. Naturale Torino, Monografie 14: 1-949
  • Dempfle, Carl-Erik 2012. Defibrinogenierungs-Syndrom nach Schlangenbiss von Grubenottern – Diskussion der Effekte anhand eines Fallberichtes. Draco 13 (51): 67-71 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Entiauspe-Neto, Omar Machado; Tângela Denise Perleberg and Marco Antonio de Freitas 2016. Herpetofauna from an urban Pampa fragment in southern Brazil: composition, structure and conservation Check List 12(5): 1964 - get paper here
  • FENWICK, ALLYSON M.; RONALD L. GUTBERLET JR, JENNAFER A. EVANS, CHRISTOPHER L. PARKINSON 2009. Morphological and molecular evidence for phylogeny and classification of South American pitvipers, genera Bothrops, Bothriopsis, and Bothrocophias (Serpentes: Viperidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156 (3): 617-640 - get paper here
  • Gavira, Rodrigo Samuel Bueno and Denis Vieira Andrade. 2013. Temperature and thermal regime effects on the specific dynamic action of Bothrops alternatus (Serpentes, Viperidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 34 (4): 483-491 - get paper here
  • Hoge, A. R. 1952. Notas erpetólogicas - Anomalia na lepidose e pigmentacão das escamas dorsais em B. jararaca e C. alternata. Memórias do Instito Butantan 24 (2): 237-239 - get paper here
  • Laita, Mark 2013. Serpentine. Abrams and PQ Blackwell, Auckland, New Zealand, 200 unnumbered pages
  • Magalhaes,O. 1925. Contribuição para o estudo dos ophidios brasileiros (1). Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Crz, Rio de Janeiro 18: 151-155 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Meyer, C. 2008. Auf- und Nachzucht der Halbmondlanzenotter (Bothrops alternatus). Draco 8 (33): 76-79 - get paper here
  • Monzel, Markus 2008. Bissunfälle durch Lanzenottern – Gifte, Epidemiologie und Schlangenbiss-Management. Draco 8 (33): 57-65 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Pérez-Iglesias, Juan Manuel; Jofré, Laura E.; Rueda, Marta Patricia 2017. Primeros registros de la herpetofauna en dos areas naturales protegidas de la provincia de Santiago del Estero (Argentina) Cuad. herpetol. 32 (1): 49-57 - get paper here
  • Pezzano, V. 1986. Reproduction of Bothrops alternatus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) in captivity. Litteratura Serpentium 6 (1): 13-18 - get paper here
  • Prigioni, C.; C. Borteiro; F. Kolenc. 2011. Amphibia and Reptilia, Quebrada de los Cuervos, Departamento de Treinta y Tres, Uruguay. Check List 7 (6): 763-767 - get paper here
  • Roodt, Adolfo Rafael de; Lanari, Laura Cecilia; Laskowicz, Rodrigo Daniel; Botassi, Sandra; Rocco, Daniela Marisa; Costa de Oliveira, Vanessa; Regner, Pablo Ignacio 2012. Comparación de caracteres corporales y del veneno de Bothrops alternatus entre poblaciones de las provincias de Buenos Aires y Entre Ríos, Argentina. Cuadernos de Herpetología 26 (1): - get paper here
  • Salomão, M.G., W. Wüster, R.S. Thorpe & BBBSP 1999. MtDNA phylogeny of Neotropical pitvipers of the genus Bothrops (Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 127-134
  • Scrocchi, G.J.; Moreta, J.C. & Kretzschmar, S. 2006. Serpientes del Noroeste Argento [Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Catamarca, La Rioja, Santiago del Estero]. Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán, 178 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Winchell, S. 2010. Die Reptilien Argentiniens. Reptilia (Münster) 15 (83): 20-27 - get paper here
  • Zaracho, Víctor Hugo; Ingaramo, María del Rosario; Semhan, Romina Valeria; Etchepare, Eduardo; Acosta, José Luis; Falcione, Ana Camila; Álvarez, Blanca 2014. Herpetofauna de la Reserva Natural Provincial Isla Apipé Grande (Corrientes, Argentina) Cuad. herpetol. 28 (2): 153-160 - get paper here
 
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