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Bothrops bilineatus (WIED-NEUWIED, 1821)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesBothrops bilineatus bilineatus (WIED 1821)
Bothrops bilineatus smaragdinus HOGE 1966 
Common NamesE: Green Jararaca
G: Grüne Jararaca 
SynonymCophias bilineatus WIED-NEUWIED 1821: 339
Cophias bilineatus — WIED 1825: 483
Bothrops bilineatus — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 1514
Bothrops bilineatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 44
Bothriopsis bilineatus — MEHRTENS 1987: 381
Bothriopsis bilineata — WELCH 1994
Bothrops bilineatus — SALOMÃO et al. 1997
Bothriopsis taeniata — PARKINSON 1999
Bothriopsis bilineata — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 248
Bothriopsis bilineata — LEHR 2002: 102
Bothrops bilineatus — FEIO & CARAMASCHI 2003
Bothrops bilineatus — STARACE 1998: 381
Bothrops bilineatus — CLAESSEN 2006
Bothriopsis bilineata — FENWICK et al. 2009
Bothrops bilineata — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothriopsis bilineata — WALLACH et al. 2014: 109

Bothrops bilineatus bilineatus (WIED 1821)
Cophias bilineatus WIED-NEUWIED 1821
Cophias bilineatus WIED 1825
Lachesis bilineatus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854
Trigonocephalus (Bothrops) arboreus COPE 1870: 157
Bothrops bilineatus bilineatus — HOGE 1966: 114
Bothrops bilineatus bilineatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 44
Bothrops bilineatus bilineatus — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Bothriopsis bilineata bilineata — WELCH 1994: 31
Bothrops bilineatus bilineatus — KORNACKER 1999
Bothrops bilineatus bilineatus — CARRASCO et al. 2012

Bothrops bilineatus smaragdinus HOGE 1966
Bothrops bilineatus smaragdinus HOGE 1966: 114
Bothrops bilineatus smaragdinus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 45
Bothrops bilineatus smaragdinus — DUELLMAN 1978: 264
Bothriopsis bilineata smaragdina — WELCH 1994: 31
Bothriopsis bilineatus smaragdinus — TOUZET 1997
Bothrops bilineatus smaragdinus — KORNACKER 1999
Bothrops bilineatus smaragdinus — MONZEL & WÜSTER 2008
Bothriopsis bilineata smaragdina — WHITHWORTH & BEIRNE 2011
Bothrops bilineatus smaragdinus — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothriopsis bilineata smaragdina — SWITAK 2014 
DistributionBrazil (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Rondônia, Espírito Santo, etc.), S/SE Venezuela, S Colombia, E Ecuador (Amazonian areas), N Bolivia, E/NE Peru (Pasco etc.), Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana

bilineata: Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guyana and Brazil (Maranhão, Pará, Amapá, Roraima, from Bahia to Rio de Janeiro states); Type locality: Marobá, Rio Peruhype, Estado da Bahia, Brazil.

smaragdina: Amazonian forests of Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, S Venezuela, Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, Rondonia); Type locality: Upper Rio Perús [Purus], Estado Amazonas, Brazil

arboreus: Type locality: Brazil, nr. Bahia;  
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesType: Unlocated (McDiarmid et al. 1999)
Holotype: ANSP 7014 [arboreus] 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970.

Max total length: 120 cm

Type: location unknown fide PETERS 1960. 
References
  • Beebe, William 1946. Field notes on the snakes of Kartabo, British Guiana, and Caripito, Venezuela. Zoologica 31: 11-52
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • Bernarde, P.S.; H.C. Costa; R.A. Machado; V.A. São-Pedro. 2011. Bothriopsis bilineata bilineata (Wied, 1821) (Serpentes: Viperidae): New records in the states of Amazonas, Mato Grosso and Rondônia, northern Brazil. Check List 7 (3): 343-347 - get paper here
  • BERNARDE, Paulo Sérgio; Jáson de Oliveira GOMES 2012. Serpentes peçonhentas e ofidismo em Cruzeiro do Sul, Alto Juruá, Estado do Acre, Brasil. Acta Amazonica 42 (1): 65 - 72
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Carrasco, P.A., C.I. Mattoni, G.C. Leynaud, and G.J. Scrocchi. 2012. Morphology, phylogeny and taxonomy of South American bothropoid pitvipers (Serpentes, Viperidae). Zoologica Scripta 41:1–15 - get paper here
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
  • Claessen, H. 2006. De Slangen van de Guyana’s. Deel X. Lacerta 64 (3): 92-100 - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1870. Seventh contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 11: 147-169 [1869] - get paper here
  • Duellman, W. E. 1978. The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 65: 1-352 - get paper here
  • Duellman, W. E. 2005. Cusco Amazónico: The Lives of Amphibians and Reptiles in an Amazonian Rainforest. Comstock Pub Assoc.
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Feio, R.N. & Caramaschi, U. 2003. Contribuição ao conhecimento da herpetofauna do nordeste do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Phyllomedusa 1 (2): 105-111 [2002] - get paper here
  • Freitas, Marco Antonio de 2014. Squamate reptiles of the Atlantic Forest of northern Bahia, Brazil. Check List 10 (5): 1020-1030 - get paper here
  • Gasc & Rodrigues 1980. Liste preliminaire des Serpents de la Guyane francaise. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris 2 (4): 559-598
  • Hamdan, B. & R. M. Lira-da-Silva 2012. The snakes of Bahia State, northeastern Brazil: species richness, composition and biogeographical notes. Salamandra 48 (1): 31-50 - get paper here
  • Hoge, A.R. 1966. Preliminary account on Neotropical Crotalinae (Serpentes: Viperidae). Mem. Inst. Butantan 32 [1965]: 109-184 - get paper here
  • Kornacker,P.M. 1999. Checklist and key to the snakes of Venezuela. PaKo-Verlag, Rheinbach, Germany, 270 pp.
  • Lehr, E. 2001. New records for amphibians and reptiles from Departamentos Pasco and Ucayali, Peru. Herpetological Review 32 (2): 130-132 - get paper here
  • Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp. - get paper here
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Monzel, Markus & Wolfgang Wüster 2008. Neotropische Grubenottern – Evolution, Biogeographie und Ökologie. Draco 8 (33): 4-27 - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Parkinson,C.L. 1999. Molecular systematics and biogeographical history of pitvipers as determined by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Copeia 1999 (3): 576-586 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Peters , J. A. 1960. The snakes of Ecuador; check list and key. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 122: 489-541 - get paper here
  • Quelch, J.J. 1899. The poisonous snakes of British Guiana. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 3: 402-409 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • ROCHA, CARLOS FREDERICO D.; HELENA G.BERGALLO, JOSÉ P. POMBAL JR., LENA GEISE, MONIQUE VAN SLUYS, RONALDO FERNANDES, ULISSES CARAMASCHI 2004. FAUNA DE ANFÍBIOS, RÉPTEIS E MAMÍFEROS DO ESTADO DO RIO DE JANEIRO, SUDESTE DO BRASIL Publ. Avul. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro (104): 3-23 - get paper here
  • Salomão, M.G., W. Wüster, R.S. Thorpe & BBBSP 1997. DNA evolution of South American pitvipers of the genus Bothrops. In R.S. Thorpe, W. Wüster & A. Malhotra (Eds.), Venomous Snakes: Ecology, Evolution and Snakebite. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, No. 70, Pp. 89-98. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • Salomão, M.G., W. Wüster, R.S. Thorpe & BBBSP 1999. MtDNA phylogeny of Neotropical pitvipers of the genus Bothrops (Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 127-134
  • Silva-Soares, T.; R.B. Ferreira; R.O.L. Salles; C.F.D. Rocha. 2011. Continental, insular and coastal marine reptiles from the municipality of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Check List 7 (3): 290-298 - get paper here
  • Solé, Mirco 2015. Auf der Suche nach der seltensten Giftschlange Südamerikas Terraria-Elaphe 2015 (6): 50-53 - get paper here
  • Starace, Fausto 1998. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. IBIS Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, Guyane, 450 pp.
  • Starace, Fausto 2013. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. Ibis Rouge Editions, Matoury, Guyane, ISBN 978-2-84450-407-4 - get paper here
  • Switak, K.-H. 2014. Den mächtigen Amazonas entlang. Im herpetologischen Paradies. Reptilia (Münster) 19 (108): 76-85
  • Touzet, Jean Marc 1997. Bothriopsis bilineatus smaragdinus: Ecuador's eye-grabbing emerald. Reptiles 5 (8): 40-46
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  • Whithworth, A. & Beirne, C. 2011. Reptiles of the Yachana Reserve. Global Vision International, 130 pp. - get paper here
  • Wied-Neuwied, M. Prinz zu 1821. Reise nach Brasilien in den Jahren 1815 bis 1817. Vol. 2. Heinrich Ludwig Bronner, Frankfurt. - get paper here
  • Wied-Neuwied, M. Prinz zu 1825. Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte von Brasilien. Weimar, no. 1, xxii + 612 pp. - get paper here
 
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