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Bothrops jararaca (WIED-NEUWIED, 1824)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Jararaca
G: Jararaca 
SynonymCophias jajaraca [sic] WIED 1824: 1103
Bothrops megaera WAGLER 1824: 50 (preocc. by Bothrops megaera SHAW)
Bothrops leucostigma WAGLER 1824: 53
Bothrops tessellatus WAGLER 1824: 54
Bothrops taeniatus WAGLER 1824: 55
Cophias jararakka — WIED 1825
Bothrops jararaca — WAGLER 1830
Bothrops jararaca — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1509
Lachesis lanceolatus BOULENGER 1896 (part.)
Bothrops jararaca — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 46
Bothrops jararaca — CEI 1993
Bothrops jararaca — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 262
Bothropoides jararaca — FENWICK et al. 2009
Bothropoides jararaca — OLIVEIRA et al. 2010
Bothrops jararaca — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothropoides jararaca — WALLACH et al. 2014: 113 
DistributionBrazil (S Bahia, Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo,
Parana, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, E Mato Grosso),
NE Paraguay, Argentina (Misiones)

Type locality: Mucurí, Lagoa de Arara, Brasil [WIED 1824]  
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: iconotype, based on Lief. 7, pl. 3 in Wied-Neuwied, 1824
Holotype: ZSM, uncatalogued specimen(s) (lost) [leucostigma]
Lectotype: ZSM 2699/0, juvenile, “Habitat ad flumen St. Francisci” [Brazil, Rio São Francisco, probably near Pedras de Maria da Cruz (15°37'S, 44°23'W), near Januaria (15°29'S, 44°23'W), or near Joazeiro (09°24'S, 40°30'W)] according to the original description and Vanzolini (1981), collected by Spix and Martius expedition to Brazil, 1817-1820 [Bothrops tessellatus] 
Diagnosis 
CommentVenomous!

A peptide derived from the venom of the jararaca, has been developed into several drugs (ACE inhibitors) used for the treatment of high blood pressure, e.g. Captopril, Enalapril and Lisinopril.

Synonymy after CEI 1993. Bothrops tessellatus Wagler, 1824 is a synonym of Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus, 1758) according to Hoogmoed & Gruber (1983). 
Etymology 
References
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