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Bothrops jararaca (WIED-NEUWIED, 1824)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Jararaca
G: Jararaca 
SynonymCophias jajaraca [sic] WIED 1824: 1103
Bothrops megaera WAGLER 1824: 50 (preocc. by Bothrops megaera SHAW)
Bothrops leucostigma WAGLER 1824: 53
Bothrops tessellatus WAGLER 1824: 54
Bothrops taeniatus WAGLER 1824: 55
Cophias jararakka - WIED 1825
Bothrops jararaca - WAGLER 1830
Bothrops jararaca — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1509
Lachesis lanceolatus BOULENGER 1896 (part.)
Bothrops jararaca - PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 46
Bothrops jararaca - CEI 1993
Bothrops jararaca — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 262
Bothropoides jararaca — FENWICK et al. 2009
Bothropoides jararaca — OLIVEIRA et al. 2010
Bothrops jararaca — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothropoides jararaca — WALLACH et al. 2014: 113 
DistributionBrazil (S Bahia, Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo,
Parana, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, E Mato Grosso),
NE Paraguay, Argentina (Misiones)

Type locality: Mucurí, Lagoa de Arara, Brasil [WIED 1824] Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: Based on Lief. 7, pl. 3 in Wied-Neuwied, 1824
Holotype: ZSM, uncatalogued specimen(s) (lost) [leucostigma]
Lectotype: ZSM 2699/0, juvenile, “Habitat ad flumen St. Francisci” [Brazil, Rio São Francisco, probably near Pedras de Maria da Cruz (15°37'S, 44°23'W), near Januaria (15°29'S, 44°23'W), or near Joazeiro (09°24'S, 40°30'W)] according to the original description and Vanzolini (1981), collected by Spix and Martius expedition to Brazil, 1817-1820 [Bothrops tessellatus] 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy after CEI 1993. Bothrops tessellatus Wagler, 1824 is a synonym of Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus, 1758) according to Hoogmoed & Gruber (1983). 
References
  • BARBO, <br />FAUSTO E.; JOÃO LUIZ GASPARINI, ANTONIO P. ALMEIDA, HUSSAM ZAHER, FELIPE G. GRAZZIOTIN, RODRIGO B. GUSMÃO, JOSÉ MÁRIO G. FERRARINI<br />& RICARDO J. SAWAYA 2016. Another new and threatened species of lancehead genus Bothrops (Serpentes, Viperidae) from Ilha dos Franceses, Southeastern Brazil Zootaxa 4097 (4): 511–529 - get paper here
  • Bérnils, R.S.; Batista, M.A. & Bertelli, P.W. 2001. Cobras e lagartos do Vale: levantamento das espécies de Squamata (Reptilia, Lepidosauria) da Bacia do Rio Itajai, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Rev. Est. Ambientais (Blumenau) 3 (1): 69-79
  • Bueno Gavira, Rodrigo Samuel and Daniel Loebmann. 2011. Bothrops sp. (gr. atrox) (jararaca / lancehead) diet. Herpetological Review 42 (3): 436 - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
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  • Duarte, M.R. 2003. Prickly food: snakes preying upon porcupines. Phyllomedusa 2 (2): 109-112 - get paper here
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  • Freitas, M.A.; D. Veríssimo; V. Uhlig. 2012. Squamate Reptiles of the central Chapada Diamantina, with a focus on the municipality of Mucugê, state of Bahia, Brazil. Check List 8(1):16-22 - get paper here
  • Freitas, Marco Antonio de 2014. Squamate reptiles of the Atlantic Forest of northern Bahia, Brazil. Check List 10 (5): 1020-1030 - get paper here
  • Freitas, Marco Antonio de; Thais Figueiredo Santos Silva, and Daniel Loebmann. 2010. Bothrops jararaca (Jararaca). Altitudinal record. Herpetological Review 41(2): 234 - get paper here
  • Gomes, N. & G. Puorto. 1993. Atlas anatômico de Bothrops jararaca Wied, 1824 (Serpentes: Viperidae). Mem. Inst. Butantan 55: 69-100 - get paper here
  • Hamdan, B. & R. M. Lira-da-Silva 2012. The snakes of Bahia State, northeastern Brazil: species richness, composition and biogeographical notes. Salamandra 48 (1): 31-50 - get paper here
  • Hartmann, P.A.; Hartmann, M.T. & Menta Giasson, L.O. 2003. Uso do hábitat e alimentaçao em juvenis de Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae) na Mata Atlantica do sudeste do Brasil. Phyllomedusa 2 (1): 35-42 - get paper here
  • Hoge, A. R. 1952. Notas erpetólogicas - Anomalia na lepidose e pigmentacão das escamas dorsais em B. jararaca e C. alternata. Memórias do Instito Butantan 24 (2): 237-239 - get paper here
  • Hoogmoed,M.S. and Gruber,U. 1983. Spix and Wagler type specimens of reptiles and amphibians in the Natural History Musea in Munich (Germany) and Leiden (The Netherlands). Spixiana Suppl. 9: 319-415 - get paper here
  • Kwet, ; A. 2011. “Nitro-Salbe” gegen Giftschlangenbisse. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (90): 3-7 - get paper here
  • Marques, O.A.V.; Martins, M & Sazima, I. 2002. A new insular species of pitviper from Brazil, with comments on evolutionary biology and conservation of the Bothrops jararaca group (Serpentes, Viperidae). Herpetologica 58 (3): 303-312 - get paper here
  • Marques, Otavio A. V.; Rafaela Z. Coeti, Patrícia A. Braga, Ivan Sazima 2017. A rotten choice: feeding attempt by a coral snake (Micrurus frontalis) on a dead pitviper (Bothrops jararaca) that had swallowed a bulky rodent. Herpetology Notes 10: 137-139 - get paper here
  • Marques, R., M.S. Tinôco, D. Couto- Ferreira, C.P. Fazolato, H.C. Browne-Ribeiro, M.L.O. Travassos, M.A. Dias & J.V.L. Mota 2011. Reserva Imbassaí Restinga: inventory of snakes on the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3 (11): 2184–2191 - get paper here
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  • Pontes, J.A.L.; Figueiredo, J.P., Pontes, RC. and Rocha, C.F.D. 2008. Snakes from the Atlantic Rainforest area of Serra do Mendanha, in Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil: a first approximation to the taxocenosis composition. Braz. J. Biol. 68(3): 601-609 - get paper here
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  • Vrcibradic, D.; C.F.D. Rocha; M.C. Kiefer; F.H. Hatano; A.F. Fontes; M. Almeida-Gomes; C.C. Siqueira; J.A.L. Pontes; V.N.T. Borges-Junior; L.O. Gil; T. Klaion; E.C.N. Rubião; M. Sluys. 2011. Herpetofauna, Estação Ecológica Estadual do Paraíso, state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Check List 7 (6): 745-749 - get paper here
  • Wagler,J. 1824. Serpentum Brasiliensium species novae, ou histoire naturelle des espèces nouvelles de serpens. In: Jean de Spix, Animalia nova sive species novae. [NAtrix bahiensis: 27,. Monaco, Typis Franc. Seraph. Hübschmanni, vii + 75 pp.
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