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Bothrops pauloensis AMARAL, 1925

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymBothrops neuwiedi pauloensis AMARAL 1925: 59
Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis — HOGE 1966: 128 [1965]
Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis — VALDUJO et al. 2002
Bothrops pauloensis — DA SILVA in CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004
Bothrops pauloensis — JANSEN et al. 2007
Bothrops (neuwiedi) pauloensis — MONZEL & WÜSTER 2008
Bothrops pauloensis — DA SILVA & RODRIGUES 2008
Bothropoides pauloensis — FENWICK et al. 2009
Bothrops (neuwiedi) pauloensis — DEMPFLE 2012
Bothrops pauloensis — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothropoides pauloensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 114 
DistributionBrazil (Goiás, W Minas Gerais, São Paulo, S Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, N Paraná), Paraguay, Bolivia

Type locality: Leme: São Paulo: Brazil. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: IBSP 3013, adult male 
CommentDiagnosis: Postocular stripe well marked, which frequently expands around the labial fissure, developing a melanism on the sides of head. All the supralabials with uniform pigmentation, without conspicuous spots. Oblique occipital blotches rarely surpass quadratemandibular articulation, consequently postcephalic stripes are absent. Borders of the dorsolateral blotches with variable contour: diffuse or well marked. Blotches between two consecutive dorsolateral blotches usually absent. Keels with the same coloration of the dorsal scales. Ground coloration extremely varied, but the cream tone with the black dorsolateral blotches are more common. Dorsolateral blotches of the trunk from 11 to 25 (modes 15 and 17) with variable formats and relatively distant from each other. 
References
  • Amaral, A. D. 1927. Studies of neotropical ophidia IV. A new form of crotalidae from Bolivia. Bulletin of the Antivenin Institute of America 1 (1): 5-6
  • Amaral, A. D. 1932. Contribuicao ao conhecimento dos ofidios do Brasil V. Uma nova raca de Bothrops neuwiedii. Mem. Inst. Butantan 7: 97-101 - get paper here
  • Amaral, A. do 1925. A general consideration of snake poisoning and observations on neotropical pitvipers. Contr. Harvard Inst. Biol. & Med. 2: 1-64 - get paper here
  • Amaral,A. do 1930. Studies of neotropical Ophidia XXV. A new race of Bothrops neuwiedi. Bull. Antiven. Inst. Amer. 4 (3): 65-67
  • Amaral,A. do 1930. Estudos sobre ophidios neotropicos XVIII. Lista remissiva dos ophidios da região neotropica. Mem. Inst. Butantan 4: 126-271 [1929] - get paper here
  • Amaral,A. do 1937. New species of ophidians from Colombia. Compte Rendu 12th Congress Internat. Zool., Lisbon 3 [139 (141)]: 1762-1767 [1935]
  • Avila, L. J.;Moreta, J. C. 1995. Bothrops neuwiedi bolivianus Amaral. Cuadernos de Herpetología 9 (1): 57 - get paper here
  • Bérnils, R.S.; Batista, M.A. & Bertelli, P.W. 2001. Cobras e lagartos do Vale: levantamento das espécies de Squamata (Reptilia, Lepidosauria) da Bacia do Rio Itajai, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Rev. Est. Ambientais (Blumenau) 3 (1): 69-79
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1886. A synopsis of the reptiles and batrachians of the province Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 18: 423-445 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1894. List of reptiles and batachians collected by Dr. T. Bohls near Asuncion, Paraguay. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 13: 342-348 - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Campbell, Jonathan A. and William W. Lamar 2004. The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere, 2 vols. Comstock (Cornell University Press), Ithaca, NY, 962 pp. [review in Science 305: 182]
  • Carrasco, P.A., C.I. Mattoni, G.C. Leynaud, and G.J. Scrocchi. 2012. Morphology, phylogeny and taxonomy of South American bothropoid pitvipers (Serpentes, Viperidae). Zoologica Scripta 41:1–15 - get paper here
  • Cochran, Doris M. 1961. Type specimens of reptiles and amphibians in the United States National Museum. Bull. US Natl. Mus. (220): xvi + 291 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1862. Catalogues of the reptiles obtained during the explorations of the Parana Paraguay, Vermejo and Uruguay rivers, by Capt. Thos. J. Page, U.S.N.; and of those procured by Lieut. N. Michier, U. S. Top. Eng., Commander of the expedition conducting the su Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1862: 346-359. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1870. Seventh contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 11: 147-169 [1869] - get paper here
  • Dempfle, Carl-Erik 2012. Defibrinogenierungs-Syndrom nach Schlangenbiss von Grubenottern – Diskussion der Effekte anhand eines Fallberichtes. Draco 13 (51): 67-71 - get paper here
  • FENWICK, ALLYSON M.; RONALD L. GUTBERLET JR, JENNAFER A. EVANS, CHRISTOPHER L. PARKINSON 2009. Morphological and molecular evidence for phylogeny and classification of South American pitvipers, genera Bothrops, Bothriopsis, and Bothrocophias (Serpentes: Viperidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156 (3): 617-640 - get paper here
  • Fernandes, W.; Abe, A.S. 1991. Electrophoretic Approach to the Relationships among the Subspecies of the Lancehead Bothrops neuwiedi (Serpentes,Viperidae). Zool. Anz. 226 (3/4): 195
  • Franca, F.G.R.; Mesquita, Daniel Oliveira and Guarino Rinaldi Colli 2006. A CHECKLIST OF SNAKES FROM AMAZONIAN SAVANNAS IN BRAZIL, HOUSED IN THE COLEÇÃO HERPETOLÓGICA DA UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA, WITH NEW DISTRIBUTION RECORDS. Occ. Pap. Oklahoma Mus. Nat. Hist., Univ. Oklahoma 17: 1-13
  • Hartmann, M. T., O. A. V. Marques and S. M. Almeida-Santos 2004. Reproductive biology of the southern Brazilian pitviper Bothrops neuwiedi pubescens (Serpentes, Viperidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 25 (1): 77-85 - get paper here
  • Hoge, A.R. 1966. Preliminary account on Neotropical Crotalinae (Serpentes: Viperidae). Mem. Inst. Butantan 32 [1965]: 109-184 - get paper here
  • Hoge, Alphonse Richard 1959. Note sur la position systematique de Trigonocephalus (Bothrops) pubescens Cope 1869. Mem. Inst. Butantan 28 [1957-1958]: 83-84 - get paper here
  • Jansen, M. 2006. Primeros registros de Bothrops pauloensis AMARAL, 1925 (Serpentes: Viperidae) en Bolivia. Kempffiana 2 (1): 66-71 - get paper here
  • Jansen, M.; Köhler, G. & Streit, B. 2007. Die Herpetofauna Boliviens. Elaphe 15 (3): 9-10
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  • Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp. - get paper here
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  • Machado, Taís, Vinícius X. Silva & Maria José de J. Silva 2013. Phylogenetic relationships within Bothrops neuwiedi group (Serpentes, Squamata): Geographically highly-structured lineages, evidence of introgressive hybridization and Neogene/Quaternary diversification. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 71: 1-14 - get paper here
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  • Xavier, V. 2002. Variação entre filhotes de representantes do complexo Bothrops neuwiedi (Serpentes, Viperidae, Ctoralinae). Phyllomedusa 1 (1): 11-30 - get paper here
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