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Bothrops pubescens (COPE, 1870)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymTrigonocephalus (Bothrops) pubescens COPE 1870: 157 [1869]
Bothrops neuwiedi riograndensis AMARAL 1925: 61
Bothrops neuwiedi pubescens — HOGE 1959: 84
Bothrops neuwiedi pubescens — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 50
Bothrops pubescens — SILVA in CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004
Bothrops (neuwiedi) pubescens — MONZEL & WÜSTER 2008
Bothrops pubescens — JANSEN 2008
Bothrops pubescens — DA SILVA & RODRIGUES 2008
Bothropoides pubescens — FENWICK et al. 2009
Bothrops pubescens — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothropoides pubescens — WALLACH et al. 2014: 114 
DistributionBrazil (Rio Grand do Sul), Uruguay (Artigas, Rivera, Tacuarembó, Cerro Largo, Treinta y Tres, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Canelones, Rocha and San José)

Type locality: Pozo Hondo, Tambores: Departamento de Tacuarembó: Uruguay. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesLectotype - MZUSP 5874, adult male. 
CommentDiagnosis - More than half or all the clear supralabials with dark markings (covering less than 50% of the supralabial surface) not very intense triangular format always in the suture between two supralabials. Dorsolateral blotches of well-defined contour, outstanding grayground coloration, still more for the presence of white margins in the principal parts of the dorsolateral blotches. Short postcephalic stripes can be present. Pair of occipital blotches with different formats, but the arrangement usually resembles two opposed arrows pointing to the head sides (“< >”). Melanism in the head absent. Postocular stripe very marked and keels always with the same coloration of the dorsal scales. Dorsolateral blotches in the trunk from 19 to 30 (mode 21) with triangular to trapezoid format and relatively close to each other.

Synonymy: partly after Hoge 1959. 
References
  • Amaral, A. D. 1927. Studies of neotropical ophidia IV. A new form of crotalidae from Bolivia. Bulletin of the Antivenin Institute of America 1 (1): 5-6
  • Amaral, A. D. 1932. Contribuicao ao conhecimento dos ofidios do Brasil V. Uma nova raca de Bothrops neuwiedii. Mem. Inst. Butantan 7: 97-101 - get paper here
  • Amaral,A. do 1925. A general consideration of snake poisoning and observations on neotropical pitvipers. Contr. Harvard Inst. Biol. & Med. 2: 1-64 - get paper here
  • Amaral,A. do 1930. Estudos sobre ophidios neotropicos XVIII. Lista remissiva dos ophidios da região neotropica. Mem. Inst. Butantan 4: 126-271 [1929] - get paper here
  • Amaral,A. do 1930. Studies of neotropical Ophidia XXV. A new race of Bothrops neuwiedi. Bull. Antiven. Inst. Amer. 4 (3): 65-67
  • Amaral,A. do 1937. New species of ophidians from Colombia. Compte Rendu 12th Congress Internat. Zool., Lisbon 3 [139 (141)]: 1762-1767 [1935]
  • Avila, L. J.;Moreta, J. C. 1995. Bothrops neuwiedi bolivianus Amaral. Cuadernos de Herpetología 9 (1): 57 - get paper here
  • Bérnils, R.S.; Batista, M.A. & Bertelli, P.W. 2001. Cobras e lagartos do Vale: levantamento das espécies de Squamata (Reptilia, Lepidosauria) da Bacia do Rio Itajai, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Rev. Est. Ambientais (Blumenau) 3 (1): 69-79
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1886. A synopsis of the reptiles and batrachians of the province Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 18: 423-445 - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1894. List of reptiles and batachians collected by Dr. T. Bohls near Asuncion, Paraguay. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 13: 342-348 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Campbell, Jonathan A. and William W. Lamar 2004. The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere, 2 vols. Comstock (Cornell University Press), Ithaca, NY, 962 pp. [review in Science 305: 182]
  • Carrasco, P.A., C.I. Mattoni, G.C. Leynaud, and G.J. Scrocchi. 2012. Morphology, phylogeny and taxonomy of South American bothropoid pitvipers (Serpentes, Viperidae). Zoologica Scripta 41:1–15 - get paper here
  • Carreira Vidal, Santiago 2002. Alimentación de los ofidios de Uruguay. Asoc. Herp. Esp., Monograf. Herp. 6, 127 pp. - get paper here
  • Carreira, S.; Brazeiro, A.; Camargo, A.; da Rosa, I.; Canavero, A. & Maneyro, M. 2012. DIVERSITY OF REPTILES OF URUGUAY: KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION GAPS. Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2a época) 21 (1-2): 9-29 - get paper here
  • Cochran, Doris M. 1961. Type specimens of reptiles and amphibians in the United States National Museum. Bull. US Natl. Mus. (220): xvi + 291 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1862. Catalogues of the reptiles obtained during the explorations of the Parana Paraguay, Vermejo and Uruguay rivers, by Capt. Thos. J. Page, U.S.N.; and of those procured by Lieut. N. Michier, U. S. Top. Eng., Commander of the expedition conducting the su Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1862: 346-359. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1870. Seventh contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 11: 147-169 [1869] - get paper here
  • FENWICK, ALLYSON M.; RONALD L. GUTBERLET JR, JENNAFER A. EVANS, CHRISTOPHER L. PARKINSON 2009. Morphological and molecular evidence for phylogeny and classification of South American pitvipers, genera Bothrops, Bothriopsis, and Bothrocophias (Serpentes: Viperidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156 (3): 617-640 - get paper here
  • Fernandes, W.; Abe, A.S. 1991. Electrophoretic Approach to the Relationships among the Subspecies of the Lancehead Bothrops neuwiedi (Serpentes,Viperidae). Zool. Anz. 226 (3/4): 195
  • Franca, F.G.R.; Mesquita, Daniel Oliveira and Guarino Rinaldi Colli 2006. A CHECKLIST OF SNAKES FROM AMAZONIAN SAVANNAS IN BRAZIL, HOUSED IN THE COLEÇÃO HERPETOLÓGICA DA UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA, WITH NEW DISTRIBUTION RECORDS. Occ. Pap. Oklahoma Mus. Nat. Hist., Univ. Oklahoma 17: 1-13
  • Hartmann, M. T., O. A. V. Marques and S. M. Almeida-Santos 2004. Reproductive biology of the southern Brazilian pitviper Bothrops neuwiedi pubescens (Serpentes, Viperidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 25 (1): 77-85 - get paper here
  • Hoge, A.R. 1966. Preliminary account on Neotropical Crotalinae (Serpentes: Viperidae). Mem. Inst. Butantan 32 [1965]: 109-184 - get paper here
  • Hoge, Alphonse Richard 1959. Note sur la position systematique de Trigonocephalus (Bothrops) pubescens Cope 1869. Mem. Inst. Butantan 28 [1957-1958]: 83-84 - get paper here
  • Jansen, M. 2006. Primeros registros de Bothrops pauloensis AMARAL, 1925 (Serpentes: Viperidae) en Bolivia. Kempffiana 2 (1): 66-71 - get paper here
  • Jansen, M.; Köhler, G. & Streit, B. 2007. Die Herpetofauna Boliviens. Elaphe 15 (3): 9-10
  • Jansen, Martin 2008. Die Lanzenottern der Gattung Bothrops in Bolivien. Draco 8 (33): 50-56 - get paper here
  • Kacoliris F.P.; Berkunsky I. & Williams J. 2006. Herpetofauna of Impenetrable, Argentinean Great Chaco. Phyllomedusa 5 (2): 149-158 - get paper here
  • Lacerda, J.B. 1884. Leçons sur le venin des serpents du Brésil et sur la méthode de traitement des morsures venimeuses par le permanganate de potasse. Rio de Janeiro, Lombaerts & C., 194 pp.
  • Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp. - get paper here
  • Leynaud, Gerardo C. and Enrique H. Bucher 1999. La fauna de serpientes del Chaco Sudamericano: diversidad, distribución geografica y estado de conservación. Academia Nacional de Ciencias Miscelanea (98):1-46
  • Machado, Taís, Vinícius X. Silva & Maria José de J. Silva 2013. Phylogenetic relationships within Bothrops neuwiedi group (Serpentes, Squamata): Geographically highly-structured lineages, evidence of introgressive hybridization and Neogene/Quaternary diversification. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 71: 1-14 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Miranda Ribeiro, A. de 1915. Lachesis lutzi. Arquivos do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, 17: 4 - get paper here
  • Monzel, Markus & Wolfgang Wüster 2008. Neotropische Grubenottern – Evolution, Biogeographie und Ökologie. Draco 8 (33): 4-27 - get paper here
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  • Silva, V.X. da; Rodrigues, M.T. 2008. Taxonomic revision of the Bothrops neuwiedi complex (Serpentes, Viperidae) with description of a new species. Phyllomedusa 7 (1): 45-90 - get paper here
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  • Wagler,J. 1824. Serpentum Brasiliensium species novae, ou histoire naturelle des espèces nouvelles de serpens. In: Jean de Spix, Animalia nova sive species novae. [NAtrix bahiensis: 27,. Monaco, Typis Franc. Seraph. Hübschmanni, vii + 75 pp.
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  • Xavier, V. 2002. Variação entre filhotes de representantes do complexo Bothrops neuwiedi (Serpentes, Viperidae, Ctoralinae). Phyllomedusa 1 (1): 11-30 - get paper here
  • Yuki, Rubens Nobuo 1997. Geographic Distribution. Bothrops neuwiedi. Herpetological Review 28 (3): 158 - get paper here
 
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