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Bothrops pulchra (PETERS, 1862)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymTrigonocephalus pulcher PETERS 1862: 672
Lachesis pulcher - BOULENGER 1896
Bothrops albocarinata SHREVE 1934: 130
Bothrops alticola PARKER 1934: 272
Bothrops albocarinatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 43
Bothrops alticolus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 43
Bothriopsis albocarinata — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 1989: 170
Bothriopsis alticola — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 1989: 170
Bothrops pulcher — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 1989: 221
Bothriechis albocarinata — SCHÄTTI, KRAMER & TOUZET 1990
Bothriechis alticolus — SCHÄTTI & KRAMER 1991: 9
Bothriechis oligolepis albocarinatus - SCHÄTTI & KRAMER 1993
Bothriopsis albocarinatus — WELCH 1994: 31
Bothrops pulchra - AMARAL 1930
Bothriopsis pulchra — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 251
Bothriopsis albocarinata — LEHR 2002: 206
Bothriopsis pulchra — CASTRO et al. 2005
Bothrops pulcher — MONZEL & WÜSTER 2008
Bothriopsis pulchra — FENWICK et al. 2009
Bothrops pulchra — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothriopsis pulchra — WALLACH et al. 2014: 110 
DistributionEcuador, Colombia (Eastern slopes of the Andes), elevation 1000-2000 m

albocarinata: Peru, Ecuador; Type-locality: "along the Pastaza River, from Canelos to Marañon River" [Ecuador].

Type locality: Quito [Ecuador] (in error fide PETERS 1955: 347) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: ZMB 3868
Holotype: MCZ R36989 [albocarinata] 
CommentVenomous!

Taxonomy: Campbell and Lamar (1989: 172) and Schatti et al (1990) suggested that B. albocarinata Shreve (1934) and B. alticola are conspecific. Schatti and Kramer (1993) synonymized the latter two with B. pulcher. However, these authors also believed the three species were the same as Bothriopsis oligolepis (Werner, 1901) and listed each in its synonymy. 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “pulcher” = beautiful, handsome, fine, fair. 
References
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Carrasco, P.A., C.I. Mattoni, G.C. Leynaud, and G.J. Scrocchi. 2012. Morphology, phylogeny and taxonomy of South American bothropoid pitvipers (Serpentes, Viperidae). Zoologica Scripta 41:1–15 - get paper here
  • Castro, F.; Ayerbe, S.; Calderón, J.J. & Cepeda, B. 2005. Nuevo registro para Colombia de Bothrocophias campbelli y notas sobre B. colombianus y B. myersi (Serpentes:Viperidae). Novedades Colombianas 8(1):57-64 - get paper here
  • Gower, D.; Garrett, K. & Stafford, P. 2012. Snakes. Firefly Books, Buffalo, NY,<br />144 p..
  • International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999. Opinion 1939. Trigonocephalus pulcher Peters, 1862 (currently Bothrops pulcher, Bothriechis pulcher or Bothriopsis pulchra; Reptilia, Serpentes): defined by the holotype, and not a neotype; Bothrops campbelli Freire Lascano, 1991: specific name place Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 56 (3): 218-220. - get paper here
  • Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp. - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Monzel, Markus & Wolfgang Wüster 2008. Neotropische Grubenottern – Evolution, Biogeographie und Ökologie. Draco 8 (33): 4-27 - get paper here
  • Parker, H.W. 1934. Reptiles and amphibians from southern Ecuador. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 14: 264-273
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Peters, J.A. 1955. Herpetological type localities in Ecuador. Rev. Ecuat. Entom. Parasit. 2: 335-352
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1862. Über die craniologischen Verschiedenheiten der Grubenottern (Trigonocephali) und über eine neue Art der Gattung Bothriechis. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1862 (December): 670-674 - get paper here
  • Schätti B; Kramer E 1991. A new pitviper from Ecuador, Bothriechis mahnerti n. sp. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 98 (1): 9-14 - get paper here
  • Schätti B; Kramer E 1993. Ecuadorianische Grubenottern der Gattungen Bothriechis, Bothrops und Porthidium (Serpentes: Viperidae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 100 (2): 235-278 - get paper here
  • Schätti, Beat; Kramer, Eugen;Touzet, Jean-Marc 1990. Systematic remarks on a rare crotalid snake from Ecuador, Bothriechis albocarinata (Shreve), with some comments on the generic arrangement of arboreal neotropical pitvipers. Revue Suisse Zool. 97 (4): 877-885 - get paper here
  • Shreve, B. 1934. NOTES ON ECUADORIAN SNAKES. Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 8: 125- 131 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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