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Brachymeles vulcani SILER, JONES, DIESMOS, DIESMOS & BROWN, 2012

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Scincinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesCamiguin Sur Slender Skink 
SynonymBrachymeles vulcani SILER, JONES, DIESMOS, DIESMOS & BROWN 2012 
DistributionPhilippines (Camiguin Sur Island)

Type locality: under rotting logs in secondary-growth forest (10:00 hr to 12:30 hr), in Sitio Pamahawan, Barangay Pandan, Municipality of Mambajao, Camiguin Sur Province, Camiguin Sur Island, Philippines (09°15’00’’N, 124°42’57.6’’E; WGS-84),  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: PNM 9766 (RMB Field no. 8223, formerly KU 310359), adult male, collected by J. Fernandez on 19 June 2007. Paratypes.—Four adult females (CAS-SU 26142, 26144, 26231, 26236) and two juveniles of undetermined sex (CAS-SU 26145–46), collected on 30 June 1966, in Dago-okan, 2 km south of Catibawasan Falls, Municipality of Mambajao, Camiguin Sur Province, Cami- guin Sur Island, Philippines (09u11924.90N, 124u43936.010E; WGS-84), by L. C. Alcala; one juvenile of undetermined sex (CAS-SU 26294) collected on 3 July 1966, in Sitio Basiao, Barrio Naasag, Municipality of Mambajao, Camiguin Sur Province, Camiguin Sur Island, Philippines (09u1399.950N, 124u399180E; WGS-84), by L. C. Alcala; one juvenile of undetermined sex (CAS-SU 26295) collected on 3 July 1966, on the northwest side of Nasawa crater, Municipal- ity of Mambajao, Camiguin Sur Province, Cami- guin Sur Island, Philippines (09u11914.170N, 124u41945.60E; WGS-84), by L. C. Alcala; two adult females (CAS-SU 26166, 26185), one juvenile female (CAS-SU 26165), one juvenile male (CAS-SU 16184), collected on 4 July 1966, in Barrio Naasag, Municipality of Mambajao, Camiguin Sur Province, Camiguin Sur Island, Philippines (09u1399.950N, 124u399180E; WGS- 84), by L. C. Alcala; three adult females (CAS-SU 28199, 28331, 28358), one juvenile female (CAS- SU 28359), and two juveniles of undetermined sex (CAS-SU 28314, 28329) collected between 15 and 27 May 1967, 4.5–8.0 km NE of Catarman Town, Municipality of Catarman, Camiguin Sur Province, Camiguin Sur Island, Philippines (09u07932.020N, 124u40932.020E; WGS-84), by L. C. Alcala; one adult female (CAS 139031) collected on 1 March 1973, in Kantinbay, Municipality of Mambajao, Camiguin Sur Prov- ince, Camiguin Sur Island, Philippines (09u11950.10N, 124u439120E; WGS-84), by L. C. Alcala. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis.—Brachymeles vulcani can be distinguished from congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) body size medium (SVL 53.6–80.1 mm); (2) limbs pentadactyl; (3) limb length moderate; (4) relative tail length short; (5) Finger-III lamellae five; (6) Toe-IV lamellae eight or nine; (7) supralabials six; (8) infralabials six; (9) supraciliaries six; (10) supraoculars five; (11) midbody scale rows 26–28; (12) axilla– groin scale rows 44–49; (13) paravertebral scale rows 65–70; (14) supranasals separate; (15) frontoparietals in contact; (16) parietals in contact; (17) first pair of enlarged chin shields separate; (18) postnasal/supranasal fusion absent; (19) enlarged chin shields in two pairs; (20) nuchal scales undifferentiated; (21) fourth and fifth supralabial below eye; (22) auricular opening present; and (23) presacral vertebrae 32 (Tables 3, 4 in Siler et al. 2012).

Comparisons.—Characters distinguishing B. vulcani from all medium-sized, pentadactyl species of Brachymeles are summarized in Tables 3 and 4. Brachymeles vulcani most closely resembles B. gracilis, B. tiboliorum, and B. suluensis. However, B. vulcani differs from these three taxa by having eight or nine Toe-IV lamellae (vs. six [B. tiboliorum], seven or eight [B. gracilis], eight [B. suluensis]), 32 presacral vertebrae (vs. 31 [B. suluensis], 33 [B. tiboliorum], 34 [B. gracilis]), and by the absence of contact between the first pair of enlarged chin shields (vs. presence or absence [B. gracilis, B. tiboliorum], presence [B. suluensis]). Brachymeles vulcani further dif- fers from B. gracilis and B. tiboliorum by having a shorter relative tail length (TL/SVL , 84% vs. up to 102% [B. gracilis] and 90% [B. tiboliorum]) and five Finger-III lamellae (vs. four or five); from B. tiboliorum and B. suluensis by having enlarged chin shields in two pairs (vs. three); from B. gracilis and B. suluensis by the presence of contact between frontoparietal scales (vs. presence or absence [B. gracilis], absence [B. suluensis]); from B. gracilis by having six infralabials (vs. six or seven) and by the absence of a fused postnasal/supranasal scale (vs. presence or absence); and from B. suluensis by having a greater number of midbody scale rows (26–28 vs. 24).
Brachymeles vulcani can be distinguished from all limbless species of Brachymeles (B. apus, B. lukbani, B. minimus, B. miriamae, B. vermis) by having limbs; and from all non- pentadactyl species of Brachymeles (B. bico- landia, B. bonitae, B. brevidactylus, B. ce- buensis, B. cobos, B. elerae, B. libayani, B. muntingkamay, B. paeforum, B. pathfinderi, B. samarensis, B. tridactylus, B. wrighti) by having pentadactyl (vs. nonpentadactyl) limbs (Siler et al. 2012). 
CommentSympatry on Camiguin Sur Island: Eutropis multifasciata, Lamprolepis smaragdina, Pinoyscincus abdictus abdictus, P. coxi, Sphenomorphus fasciatus, S. variegatus, Tropidophorus misaminus. 
EtymologyThe island of Camiguin Sur is volcanic in origin, with five major volcanic structures: Mt. Hibok–Hibok, Mt. Vulcan, Mt. Mambajao, M. Guinsiliban, and Mt. Uhay. Since its formation, the island has experienced regular volcanic activity, with several major eruptions resulting in the death of thousands of the island’s inhabitants and the complete destruction of several coastal towns. The specific epithet is a patronym, derived from the Latin word ‘‘Vulcan,’’ the ancient Roman god of fire and chosen in recognition of the island’s volatile geologic history. 
References
  • Sanguila MB, Cobb KA, Siler CD, Diesmos AC, Alcala AC, Brown RM 2016. The amphibians and reptiles of Mindanao Island, southern Philippines, II: the herpetofauna of northeast Mindanao and adjacent islands. ZooKeys 624: 1–132, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.624.9814 - get paper here
  • Siler, Cameron D.; Robin M. Jones, Arvin C. Diesmos, Mae L. Diesmos, and Rafe M. Brown 2012. Phylogeny-Based Species Delimitation In Philippine Slender Skinks (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) III: Taxonomic Revision of the Brachymeles Gracilis Complex, With Descriptions of Three New Species. Herpetological Monographs 26 (1): 135-172. - get paper here
 
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